2. Maize | Crop Production Technology - Kharif Crops | III Semester

Unit I 

Chapter 2 - Maize


Scientific Classification

Common name: Corn
English name: Maize
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Angiosperm
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Zea
Species: mays

Introduction

One of the most important crops in the world's agriculture economy.
Chromosome number 2n = 20 (cross pollinated crop)
It has very high potential and that's why It is called the queen of cereal. It is grown in almost all the states of India.

Origin: Mexico

Economic importance

One of the most versatile emerging crops.
Maize serves as a basic raw material to the thousands of industrial products that includes protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, oil etc.
85% of its production in the country is consumed as food in various form
Use in animal feed

Area production and productivity

The area is about 139 million hectares with the production of about 600 million tonnes of grain.
The USA has the largest maize growing area followed by China, Mexico and India. 
The USA stand first followed by China in production
The average maize yield in India is only 1785 kg per hectare
The production area in India is 6.4 million hectares with a total production of about 11.5 million tonnes. UP, Bihar, Rajasthan, MP and Punjab leading match growing states.
The maximum growing area and production of maize is in Uttar Pradesh but Andhra Pradesh gives the highest average yield per hectare i.e. 3182 kg followed by Punjab (2574 kg).

Contribution in fodder production

Furnished with huge quantities of green fodder for cattle buffalo and other animal maize is a major source of both green feed and fodder for livestock

Climate

It is a day-neutral and warm weather plant. It has hypogeal germination and is sensitive to waterlogging conditions. Kharif Season is the main growing season in Northern India however; maize may be shown anytime from April to October, in South India as the climate is very warm even in winter. It requires considerable moisture and warmth from germination to flowering.
The most suitable temperature for germination is 21 degrees Celsius and for growth 32 degrees celsius.

Soil

Best adapted to build Sandy loam to silty loam drained soil.
Water stagnation is very harmful to crop. Proper drainage is required for the cultivation of the crop, especially during the Kharif season. 
pH ranges from 5.5 to 7.5.
The alluvial soils of UP, Bihar and Punjab are most suitable for growing maize crops.

Field preparation

First ploughing is done with the help of soil inverting plough thereafter planking should be done by planker so that field may be levelled and avoid waterlogging.

Maize grain types

1 flint corn (Zea mays indurata)
The entire outer portion of the kernel is hard starch.
2 Dent Corn (Zea mays indentata)
3. Sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)
4. Flour Corn (Zea mays amylacea)
5. Popcorn (Zea mays everta)
6. Waxy corn(Zea mays ceretina)


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