Physical Education Chapter 2 Notes - Class 12 - Children & Women in Sports | 2024-25

Unit II - Children & Women in Sports

Based on the Latest CBSE Syllabus of 2023-24
● Exercise guidelines of WHO for different age groups.
● Common postural deformities-knock knees, flat foot, round shoulders, Lordosis, Kyphosis, Scoliosis, and bow legs and their respective corrective measures. 
● Women’s participation in Sports – Physical, Psychological, and social benefits. 
● Special consideration (menarche and menstrual dysfunction)
● Female athlete triad (osteoporosis, amenorrhea, eating disorders).

Physical Education Chapter 2 Notes - Class 12 - Children & Women in Sports

Exercise guidelines of WHO for different age groups

The World Health Organization (WHO) has published exercise guidelines for different age groups, which are designed to promote health and prevent chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Here are the exercise guidelines for different age groups as recommended by the WHO:

Children and Adolescents (aged 5-17 years):

  • Children and adolescents should engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity daily.
  • This can include activities such as running, swimming, cycling, playing sports, and dancing.
  • Muscle-strengthening activities should also be performed at least three times a week, such as push-ups, squats, and lunges.

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Adults (aged 18-64 years):

  • Adults should engage in at least 150-300 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity per week or 75-150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week.
  • This can include activities such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, and dancing.
  • Muscle-strengthening activities should also be performed at least two days a week, such as lifting weights and doing push-ups or sit-ups.

Older Adults (aged 65 years and older):

  • Older adults should engage in at least 150-300 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or 75-150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, depending on their ability.
  • This can include activities such as brisk walking, dancing, gardening, and cycling.
  • Balance exercises should be performed at least three days a week to prevent falls.

It is important to note that these guidelines are general recommendations and may not be suitable for everyone. Before starting any exercise program, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or injuries.

Common Postural Deformities

1. Knock Knee

In Knock knees, both knees knock or touch each other while standing in a normal position.

(i) Causes:  Lack of balanced diet especially – Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus, rickets, obesity, and chronic illness are some causes of Knock-knees.

(ii) Precautions: 

  1. Take a balanced diet
  2. Babies should not be encouraged to walk at an early age.

2. Bow Legs

It is the opposite of the knock-knee position. If there is a wide gap between knees while standing in a normal position it is bow legs or genu varum.

(i) Causes: Lack of calcium and phosphorus is the main cause of bow legs. Long bones of the leg become soft and bent outwards. Also, the chances of bow legs increase when the child becomes overweight. The deficiency of vitamin D is also the cause.

(ii) Precautions:

  1. Don’t let children be overweight.
  2. Take a balanced diet
  3. Don’t encourage babies to walk at an early age.

3. Flatfoot

Flatfoot is generally found in newborn babies but becomes a postural deformity if it still continues in later childhood. Children with flat foot feel pain when they run and have a problem while standing and walking. There should be a proper arch of the feet for healthy feet.

(i) Causes: The main cause is weak muscles that cannot bear body weight. Also, rapid increase in body weight and improper shoes are some of their causes.

(ii) Precautions: 

  1. The shoe should be of proper shape.
  2. Obesity should be avoided.
  3. Don’t walk barefoot.
  4. Don’t force babies to walk at an early age.
  5. High-heeled shoes should be avoided.

4. Round Shoulders

The Shoulders become round and sometimes seem to be bent forward.

(i) Causes:

  1. Heredity,
  2. Sitting standing, walking in the bent position, 
  3. Lack of proper exercise, 
  4. Wearing very tight clothes

(ii) Precautions: 

  1. Avoid tight-fitting clothes
  2. Don’t walk, sit, or stand in the bent position
  3. Avoid tight-fitting clothes

5. Spinal Curvature

There are three types of Spinal Deformities:-

    (a) Kyphosis   (b) Lordosis   (c) Scoliosis

(a) Kyphosis

Kyphosis implies an increase of a backward curve or decrease of forward curve. Depression of the chest is common in kyphosis.

(i) Causes: It is caused by malnutrition, illness, crowded areas, polluted air, insufficient exercise, carrying heavy loads on the shoulder, rickets, etc.

(ii) Precautions: From the very beginning, teachers and parents should teach children the correct posture of sitting, standing, and walking. Proper Exercise helps to maintain the right posture.

(b) Lordosis

Lordosis is the inward curvature of the spine. It creates problems with standing and walking. It can be corrected in the initial stage.

(i) Causes: Imbalance diet, improper development of muscles, obesity and any diseases affecting vertebrae and spinal muscles are the causes of lordosis.

(ii) Precautions: 

  1. A balanced diet should be taken 
  2. Obesity should be kept away, especially at an early age.
  3. The body should be straight while carrying weight.

(c) Scoliosis

Postural adjustment of the spine in a lateral direction is called scoliosis. A single curve to the left is called the C curve. It can also be found in an S shape.

(i) Causes: Diseases in joints, under-develop legs, infantile paralysis, rickets, carrying a heavy load on one shoulder, wrong standing posture etc are its causes.

(ii) Precautions:

  1. Take balanced diet
  2. Avoid sideways bending position
  3. Avoid carrying a heavyweight on one hand for too long.

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Corrective Measures for Postural Deformities

1. For Knock-knees  

  1. Horse Riding
  2. Keep the Pillow between your knees for some time.
  3. Use walking callipers
  4. Perform padmasana and gomukhasana.

2. For Bow Legs

  1. Walk by bending the toes inward.
  2. Perform garudasana, ardha chakrasana and ardhmatseyendrasana.
  3. Walk on the inner edge of the feet.
  4. Stand erect with feet joined together.

3. For Flatfoot

  1. Jumping Rope
  2. Jumping on toes.
  3. Stand up & down on heels.
  4. Walk on toes

4. For Round Shoulders 

  1. Hold horizontal Bars
  2. Perform Chakrasana & dhanurasana.
  3. Keep the tips of your fingers on your shoulder and rotate your hand in the clockwise and anti-clockwise direction. 

5. (a) For Kyphosis

  1. Lie on the back (supine position)- with knees up and feet flat on the ground. Hands should be on the side. Slowly move your arms sideways horizontally from sideways to head. Palms should face upward. Hold this position for some time and then return your arms back. Repeat the exercise at least 10 times.
  2. Lie down on the chest (prone position)- with hands on the hips. Raise your head and trunk several inches and hold the position. Repeat at least 10 times.
  3. Sit in a normal position- with a stick held with hands in a horizontal position overhead. Lower the stick and raise it behind head your head and shoulders.  Repeat 10- 12 times.
  4. Perform Dhanurasana regularly.

5. (b) For Lordosis

  1. Lie down in a prone position with hands under the abdomen. Press your hands upon your abdomen and raise the lower back.
  2. Bend knees forward while allowing hips to bend backwards. The back should be straight and the knees should be in the same direction as the feet.
  3. Sit on the chair with feet wide apart. Bend and position your shoulders between your knees. Then reach the floor under the back of the chair.
  4. Perform Halasan Regularly.

5. (c) For Scoliosis

  1. Lie down in a prone position 
  2. Stand erect with feet a few inches apart.
  3. Stand erect with feet several inches apart.

Women’s Participation in Sports

Women's participation in sports has numerous physical, psychological, and social benefits. Here are some of the key benefits:

Physical benefits:

  • Improved cardiovascular health: Regular physical activity, such as sports, can improve heart health and reduce the risk of heart disease.
  • Increased muscle strength and endurance: Engaging in sports can help build and maintain muscle mass, which can improve overall strength and endurance.
  • Weight management: Sports can help women maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of obesity.
  • Reduced risk of chronic diseases: Regular physical activity can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis.

Psychological benefits:

  • Improved mood: Physical activity has been shown to boost mood and reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  • Increased self-esteem: Women who participate in sports may experience improved self-esteem and body image.
  • Reduced stress: Physical activity can help reduce stress and improve overall mental health.

Social benefits:

  • Increased social support: Women who participate in sports may have greater access to social support networks, which can provide emotional and practical support.
  • Increased social connectedness: Participating in sports can help women feel connected to their communities and develop new friendships.
  • Increased leadership skills: Women who participate in sports may develop leadership skills and have opportunities to take on leadership roles within their communities.

Overall, women's participation in sports can have a positive impact on physical health, mental health, and social well-being. Encouraging and supporting women's participation in sports is an important step towards promoting gender equality and empowering women.

Special consideration (Menarche & Menstrual Dysfunction)


Menarche is a significant event in a girl's life as it marks the onset of menstruation and the beginning of her reproductive life. It is important for coaches, teachers, and parents to be aware of the special considerations surrounding this event for young female athletes.

Menstrual Dysfunction

Menstrual dysfunction can include a range of conditions that affect a woman's menstrual cycle, such as irregular periods, heavy bleeding, painful periods, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Women who experience menstrual dysfunction may face challenges when it comes to engaging in physical activity.

Some special considerations that can be taken to support girls and women in these situations are:

1. Education: Providing education about menstrual health and hygiene is crucial for girls and women to manage their periods effectively while participating in physical activities.

2. Flexible Training and Competition Schedules: Coaches and organizers should provide flexibility in training and competition schedules to accommodate menstrual cycles and avoid undue stress on the body.

3. Proper Attire: Proper attire such as comfortable and supportive undergarments and menstrual products should be provided to girls and women to ensure their comfort and protection during physical activity.

4. Supportive Environment: Girls and women should be provided with a supportive and non-judgmental environment to discuss and manage their menstrual health concerns.

5. Medical Support: Girls and women experiencing menstrual dysfunction should be referred to medical professionals for diagnosis and treatment to ensure their health and well-being.

6. Inclusion: It is essential to ensure that girls and women with menstrual dysfunction are not excluded from participation in physical activities and sports. Appropriate accommodations and support should be provided to enable their participation.

Female Athletes Triad (Osteoporosis, Amenorrhea, Eating Disorders)

The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition that occurs in female athletes who participate in sports that emphasize low body weight, such as gymnastics, figure skating, and distance running. It is a combination of three interrelated conditions, including Osteoporosis, Amenorrhea, and Eating Disorders.


Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones become weak and brittle, making them more prone to fractures. 
Factors that affect the development of osteoporosis in female athletes include:

1. Low energy availability: When the body doesn't get enough energy to meet its needs, it compensates by slowing down metabolic processes, leading to decreased bone density.

2. Low estrogen levels: Estrogen is a hormone that plays a critical role in maintaining bone health. Low levels of estrogen due to menstrual dysfunction can lead to decreased bone density.

3. Overtraining: This is because the body may divert energy away from essential functions, such as bone formation, to meet the demands of exercise.

4. Poor nutrition: Inadequate nutrient intake, particularly calcium and vitamin D, can increase the risk of osteoporosis.

5. Genetics: Some individuals may be genetically predisposed to developing osteoporosis, and this risk may be compounded by lifestyle factors.


Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation, which can occur for a variety of reasons. Amenorrhea can also occur due to intense training, stress, and low body fat.

Some factors that can contribute to amenorrhea in female athletes include:
1. Low body fat: Female athletes with low body fat may experience hormonal imbalances that lead to amenorrhea.

2. Intense training: Female athletes who engage in intense training may experience hormonal imbalances that lead to amenorrhea. This is especially true for athletes who participate in endurance sports such as long-distance running.

3. Disordered eating: Female athletes who have eating disorders or engage in disordered eating behaviours may experience hormonal imbalances that lead to amenorrhea.

4. Stress: Stress can disrupt the hormonal balance in the body and lead to amenorrhea.

5. Genetics: Some women may have a genetic predisposition to amenorrhea.

6. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and thyroid disorders can cause amenorrhea.

Eating Disorders

Female athletes, particularly those in sports that prioritize lean physiques, are at an increased risk for developing eating disorders. Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are serious mental health conditions that can have negative consequences on physical health.  

Two Types:- 
1. Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder where a person has a strong fear of gaining weight and sees themselves as overweight even when they are not. They may eat very little, avoid certain foods, and may exercise excessively to lose weight. This can lead to severe weight loss and health problems.

2. Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder where a person eats large amounts of food in a short time and then tries to get rid of the calories by vomiting, using laxatives or over-exercising. They may feel like they have no control over their eating and may have a distorted body image. This can also lead to health problems.

Factors that can contribute to the development of eating disorders in female athletes include:
Pressure to maintain a certain body weight or body composition for performance or aesthetic reasons.
Increased focus on appearance and weight in the sports culture.
Low self-esteem or poor body image.
Overtraining or excessive exercise, which can increase energy needs and contribute to disordered eating patterns.
Poor nutrition or inadequate caloric intake, which can lead to energy imbalance and malnourishment.
Psychological stress, such as anxiety or depression, can contribute to disordered eating patterns.

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