Class 12 Physical Education: Chapter 1 Notes - Planning in Sports | CBSE

Planning in Sports

Chapter 1 Notes with PDF
CBSE Physical Education Class 12

Meaning of Planing

Planning is a process of organizing every thought together according to the desired goals.

In the fields of physical education, there are various types of planning. Planning is used in organizing various sports tournaments and in sports training.

Objectives of Planning

  • It helps to enhance the sports performance.
  • Proper planning improves and increases creativity among officials, coaches, or physical education teachers.
  • Planning reduces unnecessary pressure of immediacy.
  • Planning and control are connected with each other. If tournaments or any competition are organized with proper planning, control over all activities to that tournament will be easier.
  • A proper plan will ensure proper coordination.
  • Planning Reduces the Chance of mistakes and oversights.
  • Planning increases the efficiency of sports officials in conducting the tournaments/events.

Various Committees and their Responsibilities

  1. Publicity Committee- advertises events
  2. Transportation Committee- arrangements for transportation
  3. Boarding and lodging committee- providing accommodation and serving meals
  4. Grounds and equipment committee.
  5. Decoration and ceremony committee- responsible for preparing ground and equipment required.
  6. Committee for refreshments and entertainment- supplying refreshments and drinks to everyone.
  7. Reception Committee- Welcome Chief Guest and other guests
  8. Committee on Entries and programs- it organizes games, makes fixtures of teams participating in the tournaments
  9. Committee for officials- this committee selects various officials like referees, judges, etc.
  10. First aid committee- headed by well-equipped doctors. Provides first aid to injured
  11. Finance committee- prepares budget and maintains the account 
  12. Announcement committee- responsible for making various announcements during sports meet or games.

Pre, During and post-tournament - Responsibilities of the committee

Pre Tournament Responsibilities

  • To prepare the proper budget for the tournament/event. 
  • To prepare the schedule and programs of the tournament
  • To form various committees for various tasks
  • To send information to various teams about the date and venue of the tournament.
  • To make arrangements regarding boarding and lodging of the players during the tournament.
  • To decide and arrange the prize, certificate, and medals for winners
  • To prepare the ground/tracks for the sports tournament and arrange the equipment required.
  • To send the entry forms timely.

During Tournament Responsibilities

  • To ensure proper arrangement regarding inauguration of sports tournament
  • Make sure sports grounds/tracks are in order.
  • Maintain discipline
  • Ensure that tournament is being organized according to the schedule
  • Make necessary announcement regarding the process of the tournament
  • Impart first aid to injured
  • Prepare proper scorecard
  • Update information on the media channels
  • Arrange the refreshments for the players and officials.

Post Tournament Responsibilities

  • Provide detailed results to media
  • To give prizes to the winners
  • Present mementos to the chief guest and other special guests
  • Return the security fund to the teams 
  • Collect all records related to the tournament
  • Make payments to every official and pay other charges
  • Make Report on expenses.


Human beings are competing with each other since the Stone Age. Competing is the natural tendency of humans. Tournaments are conducted to provide a platform for players to show their skills and capabilities. Tournaments are also a source of entertainment for many people.

Importance of Tournaments

  • Improves performance of a players 
  • Helps in selecting players for higher Tournaments
  • A great source of entertainment
  • Promotes national integrity and international  unity
  • Gives players a platform to show their skills to the world.
  • Competitive feeling

There are four types of Tournaments

1. Round Robin or League Tournament
2. Knock-out Tournaments
3. Combination Tournament
4. Challenge Tournament - not in the syllabus


1. Knock-out Tournament
In this type of tournament, a team that is once defeated automatically gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning continues in the tournament. It means that the defeated team does not get a second opportunity. 

Advantages of a knock-out tournament
1. The knock-out tournament is less expensive as the defeated teams get eliminated.
2. The Tournament gets completed in less no. time.
3. Minimum number of officials are required in this type of Tournament.
4. Helpful in enhancing the standards of the sports becoz teams tries to give their best to avoid defeat.

1. Good teams May get eliminated in Ist or IInd round.
2. There is more chance of a weak team entering the final.
3. Spectators May lose interest in the final match if a weak team enters the final.

2. League or Round Robin Tournament
Each team plays with every other team once if it is a single league tournament and twice if it is a double league tournament.

Types of league Tournament
1. Single League Tournament- 
Total no. of matches played in the tournament- N(N - 1)/2
2. Double League Tournament
Total no. of matches played in the tournament- N(N - 1)/2

Advantages of League Tournament
1. Only a strong or deserving team gets the victory
2. Every team gets maximum opportunity to prove themselves.
3. Sports become popular because of the no. of the tournament.
4. Sports officials get enough time to watch the efficiency and performance of a player.
5. Team need not win every match.
6. Players get enough no. of opportunity.
7. The Spectators also get enough opportunity to watch and enjoy the tournament.

Disadvantages of the Tournament
1. Requires more time.
2. It costs more.
3. It requires making more arrangements for sports officials and teams.
4. Some team's Moral gets down becoz of again and again defeat. In such situations, the team unable to perform well.
5. The team coming from far, wastes their time and money.

3. Combination Tournaments
Combination Tournaments are Conducted when the match is played on a group or zonal basis.
These Tournaments depend on the suitability of the activity. 

There are four combinations on which this Tournament is organized.

1. Knock-out cum Knock-out
2. League cum League
3. Knock-out cum League
4. League cum Knock-out

Essential Points for a Knock-out Tournament

  1. The total no. of teams participating in the tournament.
  2. The total number of byes.
  3. The no. of teams in each half or quarter.
  4. the no. of byes in each half.
  5. The total no. of rounds and total no. of matches.

Method of Preparing Fixture in Knock-out Tournament

Total No. of matches in knock out tournament= N-1 (N = No. of total teams)

Total no. of Rounds- If total number of teams is in the power of 2, eg.- 16, then the total no. of rounds will be 2×2×2×2= 4
If not in the power of 2 then the total no. of rounds will be based on the next highest power of 2.

If the total number of teams is not in the power of two, then the no. of rounds will be equal to the multiple of the next power of two.

Number of teams in each half 
All the teams are divided into two halves for the sake of convenience. If the number of teams is even, then the number of teams in the upper and lower half will be equal i.e Total teams 10 then apply the formulae N/2.

Number of teams in upper half = N/2 = 10/2 = 5
Number of teams in lower half = N/2 = 10/2 = 5
If the number of teams is odd, then apply (N+1)/2 for the upper half and (N-1) /2 for the lower half.

Bye means the avoiding of playing a match in the first round of the tournament. It is a privilege given to a team which is decided generally by seeding it or by drawing of lots. Some teams may get a bye in the first round, by which they get promoted to higher round competition.
If the total number of teams are in the power of 2 like 2, 4, 6, 8, etc. then it is easy to draw a fixture by dividing teams into equal halves, but if the total number of team is not in the power of 2 like 3,5,6,7, etc. then byes are given.

The teams which are given bye do not play in the first round.
No. of byes calculated by subtracting total no. of teams for the power of 2 greater than the total no. of teams.
Ex.- No. of teams = 19
      Next highest no., which is in power of 2= 32
      Byes= 32-19 = 13

Number of byes in the upper and lower half
For calculating how many teams in the upper and lower half will get byes, the method is as follows

Number of byes in upper half = (Nb-1) /2
Number of byes in lower half= (Nb+1) /2

Example- Total number of byes = 13
Number of byes in upper half= (13-1) /2 = 61312=6
Number of byes in lower half= (13+1)/2 = 7

Method of fixing Byes
1. The 1st bye is given to the last team of the lower half
2. The 2nd bye is given to the first team of the upper half.
3. The 3rd bye is given to the first team of the lower half. 
4. The 4th bye is given to the last team of the upper half.
5. The next byes will be given in the same order.

Teams are further divided into quarters other than upper & lower halves of total teams is more. The upper halves are further divided in the I and II quarters and lower halves in the III & IV quarters.

The total no. of teams is divided by 4. 
- If Remainder is 0, teams are equally divided into four equal halves.
- If Remainder is 1, I quarter get the extra team
- If 2, I & III quarter get 1 extra team.
- If 3, I, II & III quarters get 1 extra team.

Seeding Method 
It is done to prevent the strong teams from competing with each other in the initial round. It is done to overcome the drawbacks of a single knock-out tournament. Seeding can be done only if the standards of the teams are known before the start of the tournament.
 Therefore the strong teams are placed in the position where they will get bye i.e. placing the strong teams in the last position of the lower half or first position of the upper half.
Therefore the strong teams are placed in the position where they will get bye i.e. placing the strong teams in the last position of the lower half or first position of the upper half.

Example: Total no. of teams = 6
Next power of two after 6 = 8
No. of byes 8 – 6 =2
Seeding = Last of lower half and first of upper half.
The number of matches 6 – 1 = 5.

Special Seeding
It is a method of seeding in which the players or teams directly participate in the quarter final or semi-final matches thus avoiding their participation in the initial rounds.

1. Make a fixture of 19 teams. 

2. Make a fixture of 12 teams where 4 teams getting special seeding.
Total number of teams =12
Number of teams m upper half = N/2=12/2=6
Number of teams in lower half = N/2= 6
Teams setting special seeding = 4
Number of matches = 12 – 1 = 11

Team numbers 1, 2, 11 & 12 do not play the match initially as they get special seeding.

The procedure of Fixture in League Tournament

Three methods are used in the league tournament
1. Cyclic method
2. Staircase method
3. tabular method - not in the syllabus

1. Staircase Method
Fixtures are made like a staircase in this method. It is arranged in sequential form, there is no bye, no problem of odd or even and therefore it is easiest to arrange. 

Example: Draw a fixture of 9 teams on a league basis using the staircase method.
The number of teams = 9
Thus, number of matches= N(N−1)/2 = 9(9−1)/2 = 9×82 = 36 matches

The fixture is given below

2. Cyclic Method

In this method, if the number of teams is even (i.e. 4, 6, 8, ….), then Team 1 is fixed on the top right side and the other teams move in the clockwise direction down one side of a rectangle and up on the other side. In such a case, the number of rounds will be N-1 if there are N teams participating. 
If the number of teams is odd (i.e. 3, 5, 7,….), a ‘bye’ is fixed at the top and all teams follow it in sequence. In such a case, the number of rounds will be N.

Example 1. Make a fixture of 6 teams on the cyclic method.
Total number of teams = 6
Total number of matches = N(N−1)/2 = 6(6−1)/2 = 15
Total number of rounds = N – 1 = 5

Example 2. Make a fixture of 5 teams on the cyclic method.
Total number of teams = 5
Total number of matches = N(N−1)/2=5(5−1)/2=10
Total number of rounds = 5

Deciding the Winner
The method to decide the winner in the tournaments is by calculating the percentage of matches won.

1. American Method
Percentage = MatchesWon/MatchesPlayed×100

2. British Method- In this method point is given to the team. 2 points are given to the winner of the match, 0 points to the loser of the match, and 1 point to each in case of a draw.
Percentage of points = (Total points obtained/total possible points) × 100

Intramural - not in the syllabus

Intramural is derived from Latin words 'Intra' meaning 'within' and 'Muralis' meaning 'walls'.
The activities that are performed within the campus of an institution are intramural activities.

The objectives of intramurals are as follows
1. To provide incentive, motivation, and opportunity to learn various skills.
2. To develop sportsman spirit among students.
3. To help in the recreation of the students.
4. To improve social interaction among the students.

The significance of intramurals are as follows
1. It improves the sense of citizenship and adult living.
2. It helps in the selection of teams for participation in extramural tournaments.
3. It brings out the hidden talent of the students.
4. It develops leadership qualities in students.
5. It creates a recreational atmosphere among the teachers and students.

Extramural - not in the syllabus

Extramural is derived from Latin words 'Extra' meaning 'outside' and 'Muralis' meaning 'walls'.
The activities that are performed outside the campus of an institution are Extramural activities. These are also called inter-school competitions.

The objectives of extramural are
1. To improve the standard of sports.
2. To provide experience to students.
3. To develop sportsmanship and fraternity.
4. To broaden the base of sports.
5. To provide knowledge of new rules and advanced techniques.
Significance of extramural are as follows
1. They provide recreational opportunities for the campus community.
2. They give positive experiences, regardless of race, nationality, age, and gender.
3. They provide an opportunity to develop motor skills which will be beneficial throughout life.
4. They develop important values and skills such as self-esteem, social skills, sportsmanship, and self-motivation.
5. They give an opportunity for relaxation from strenuous school work and the rapid pace of modern living.

Specific Sports Programmes - not in the syllabus

Specific sports programs are those which are not usually related to competitions. The programs have various objectives like creating awareness, creating a sense of integration among people, and raising funds for charitable organizations. Some of these programs are Sports day, Run for fun, Health run, Run for a specific cause, Run for unity and Run for awareness.

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