Ornamental | Unit V - Chapter 7 Production Technology | 3rd Semester

Chapter 7 (i) - Production technology of Mint 

LocalName : Pudina
BotanicalName:  Menthasp.
Family : Labiatae(Lamiaceae)
Origin : Japanese mint originated from Brazil and China
Major constituent: Menthol

Species of mint: Four most commonly cultivated species are:
Japanese Mint/ Menthol mint: Mentha arvensis
Peppermint: Mentha piperita
Spearmint: Mentha spicata
Bergermint: Mentha citrata

Japanese mint is the most widely grown commercially crop in India. This is mostly
grown in Jammu, UP, and Punjab in India.
Oil content: 0.5 to 0.68 %
Varieties: Japanese mint- Himalaya (MAS-1), Kalka (Hybrid-77), Shivalik, EC-
41911, Gomati, Koshi, Saksham and Kushal

Propagation: Mint can be propagated vegetatively through stolons and runners.
Climate: Normally tropical climate is not suitable for mint cultivation. While
Japanese mint can be cultivated both in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The
mean temperature between 20-40
0 C during the major part of the growing
period and rainfall between 100-110 cm. (light showers at planting stage
and ample sunshine at the time of harvesting) is ideal for its cultivation.
Soils: Well-drained loam or sandy loam soils rich in the organic matter having pH
between 6 and 8.2 are ideally suited for its cultivation. It can also be
cultivated on both red and black soil. Clay soils are not suitable.
Land preparation: Bring the soil to a fine tilth by ploughing and 2 crosses harrowing. Add well
decomposed FYM @ 30-40 tons per hectare while preparing the land.
Planting Season: In northern India, planting of Japanese mint is suitable from first
week of February to the second week of March or before the start of the rainy season.

Planting: The field should be divided into beds of a suitable size to facilitate irrigation
and make it free from weeds and stubbles. Cut the stolons/ runners into 10-12 cm
length before sowing. Stolons/ runners should be set in furrows 5-6 cm deep with a
spacing of 60-75. Plant the suckers end to end. Plants should be spaced 30 cm apart
in rows 60 cm apart. The bed is irrigated immediately after placing the stolons. On 
average, 4-5 quintals of stolons are required for planting in one hectare of land. The
stolons sprout in about 2 to 3 weeks when planted in February.

Inter-culture: In mint plantation, after planting four to fourteen weeks are very
crucial for weed control. In order to keep the topsoil loose for better
penetration of water, air, sunlight and weed-free.

Irrigation: Mentha crop requires considerable moisture well distributed throughout the
entire growing season. As roots do not penetrate deep in the soil, light and frequent
irrigations are recommended. During summer 10-12 irrigation is required for menthe.
Fertilizers: FYM at the rate of 20-25 tonnes per hectare is recommended and this organic
manure gives a good response. At the time of planting 50 kg N + 75 kg P 205 + 37 kg K20 per
hectare is given as basal dose and 75 kg of N per hectare as a top dressing in three equal
doses should be applied. The first top dressing is when the plants are about 15 cm high and
the remaining doses of nitrogen should be applied after each harvest.

Plant Protection Measures:

Insect Pests
Hairy Caterpillar- The caterpillar starts eating the under-surface of the leaves.
Control- Application of Thiodan or Malathion @1.7ml/ litre of water

Cutworms- Young plants are damaged at the collar region during the spring season.
Control- Soil treatment with Phorate 10 g before planting.

Mint Leaf Roller- The caterpillar folds the leaf in the form of a roll and feeds inside the leaf
tissue during August-September.The edges of the leaves are held together with silk-like
Control- Two to three sprayings of Thiodan @1.5ml/litre of water at weekly intervals.

Stolon Rot- During the rainy season, stolon rot occurs on the underground parts; the infected
stolons show brown lesions which enlarge and turn black, resulting in a soft decay.

Control- Crop rotation. It is better to follow a 3-year crop rotation with rice, wheat
and mint. Treatment of the stolons with 0.25% solution of Captan or 0.1%
Benlate, 0.3 % Agallol solution for 2 to 3 minutes before planting is a
preventive measure. 

Leaf blight- Cause loss of foliage during the summer season.
Control- Application of copper fungicide.

Harvesting: First harvesting commences about 4 months after planting. Crop
harvested in the sunshine at a height of 4 to 8 cm from the ground level.
Normally 2-3 times in a year
1. the First crop should be harvested before the onset of the monsoon(May-June).
2. Second harvesting well after monsoon is over (September -October).
3. Third harvesting (November -December)

Yield: The average yield is 20 tonnes of fresh herbage per ha in two harvests,
which, in turn, yields around 25 kg of oil in a year.

Oil extraction: Steam distillation is good for the extraction of menthe oil. The
herbage should be allowed to wither for 12-24 hours before distillation.

Varieties of Peppermint: Kukrail, Pranjal, CIM Madhuras, Cim Indus and Tushar
Varieties of Spearmint: Punjab Spearmint-1 (released from Y.S, Parmar University
of Horticulture), Arka and Neera (released from CIMAP) and Neer Kalka

CHAPTER7(ii) Production technology of lemongrass

Botanical Name- Cymbopogon flexuosus
Family- Poaceae
Origin- India
Distribution- Tropical and sub-tropical parts of Asia, Africa and America
Major constituent: Citral, Citronella, Geraniol
Sr. No. Common Name Botanical Name Oil per cent
1 East Indian lemongrass Cymbopogon
1.0-1.2 %
2 West Indian lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus 1.0%
3 Jammu andnorth
The following varieties are recommended for commercial cultivation:
(i) Sugandhi(OD-14)-Release from the Aromatic and medicinalplants
Research station(AMPRS) Odakkali,Kerala
(ii) Pragati- From CIMAP,Luckow
(iii) RRL-16
(iv) C.K.P-25: Released by RRL, Jammu for irrigatedcondition
(v) Krishna: Developed by CIMAP both for irrigated and rainfed and also hillslopes
(vi) Nima:AdwarfvarietydevelopedbyCIMAPfoundpromising.Thecitralcontent of
Nima is much higher than Krishna. Oil recovery is in between 0.8-1.0%.
Climate: The plants are hardy and grow under a variety of conditions. The
most ideal conditions are a warm and humid climate with, plenty of sunshine
and rainfall of 250-280 cm per annum, uniformly distributed.
Soil: It can be grown in poor soils, in the hill slopes. Soil pH ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 is ideal.
As it has good soil binding nature, they can be grown as vegetative cover over naked, eroded
Propagation- seeds, Vegetative and rooted Slips
Nursery Raising- For raising the seedling, 1000 m2 area is required for 1 ha planting. The
recommendedseedrateis3-4kg/ha. Seeds are sown in the nursery during April-May. For raising
the crop by direct seeding, a seed rate of 25 kg/ha is recommended.
Planting- Planting is done in May-June. However, with irrigation planting can
be done during any month of the year except December-January. One or two
slips are planted into each hole, about 5-8 cm deep.
Spacing- 30x30 or 60 x 45 cm for seedlings and 90x60 cm for slips have been
recommended for fertile, irrigated land.
Manures and fertilizer:
FYM:10t/ha to be applied and mixed well at the time of final land preparation.
Fertilizer- It requires 275 kg nitrogen, 25 kg P
2O5and 175kg/ha/year.
Irrigation: Irrigation is given immediately after planting when planting is done
in dry days. Thereafter two irrigations are given at 10 days interval to establish
application of a recommended dose of fertilizers is to be followed for optimum
herb production. For undulating areas sprinkler irrigation is advisable.
Interculture: Lemongrass has the weed suppression capacity. One hand
weeding at 25-30 days followed by one hoeing at 40-60 days after planting is
enough to control weeds. Mulching: Distillation waste (spent grass) applied as
organic mulch @ 3 tons/ha in between the rows has been found very effective
in controlling weeds and maintaining soil moisture as well.
Pests and Diseases:
Pest: The most important pest is scale insect, which produces yellow spot on
the stem and sucks the sap of the leaves and stem. The insect can be
controlled by spraying 0.5 % Dimethoate.
Diseases: Lemongrass may be attacked by leaf blight caused by Carbularia
veruciformis that can be controlled by benzimidazole like Benlate 50 WP at
0.2% @ 550-750 litre/ha at 10 days interval.
first ha
year 3
low yie
The av
ting: The crop is perennial in nature and gives good yields for five years.
rvest is done about 90 days after planting and then at an interval of 55-60 d
ting is done by cutting the grass 10 cm above the ground level. During
cuttings and subsequently 5 cuttings per year can be taken subject to wea
ons and irrigation management. Both immature and over mature crops
ld and oil of poor quality. The optimum period of harvesting when grow
or upper slopes is 75 days while at foothill and plains it is 60days.
erage herb yield /ha and oil production is as under:
Year 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year
Herb yield (q) 215 360 360 215
Oil yield at 0.7 % recovery (kg) 150 250 250 150
Oil dis
The fa
3. T
ctors influence the oil yield-
Storage of the plantmaterial
Treatment of thematerial
he method of distillation
jorsourceoflossisbyoxidationandresinificationoftheessentialoils. So
, if
the material is to be stored before processing. It should be kept in a dry
atmosphere with limited aircirculation.
The cut grass, when stored in shade, can increase the oil recovery up to 96
hourse and storage for a further period will only decrease the oil yield.
Dipping the chopped lemon grass in sodium chloride solution for 24 hours at 1-
2% concentration before distillation has been found to increase the citral content.

CHAPTER7(iii) Production technology ofCitronella

Botanical name: Cymbopogan winterianus (Java citronella) and Cymbopogannardus
(Ceylone citronella)
Family: Poaceae
Origin: Srilanka
Distribution- It is distributed in tropical and subtropical countries like India,
country growing this crop are Assam, Gujarat, Jammu, Kashmir, Karnataka,
Maharastra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and UttarPradesh.
Major constituent: geranial, citronellal, hydroxyl citronellal etc.
Plant parts used: Leaf and shoots.
This is used extensively as source of perfumery chemicals production
like geranial, citronellal, hydroxyl citronellal etc.
These are used in perfumery, soaps, toiletries and
cosmetics Used in pharmaceuticals.
Used in flavouring industries.
Used as an ingredient in mosquito repellent creams
1. Jorhat- C-2 and Java-2, release from RRL, Jorhat(Assam).
2. NBPGR, Delhi released two strains in Java citronella viz., IW 31243, IW31245.
3. KS–CW–SI-developedthroughselectionbyBidhanChandraKrishi
Viswa Vidyalaya,Kalyani.
4. CIMAP-Bio-13isthehighyieldingvarietiesofthiscropforSouthern and
5. ManjushaandMandakiniarethevarietiesreleasedbytheCIMAP,
Lucknow for the North Indianplains.
6. An elite mutant clone of Manjusha M
3-8 named ‘Manjari’ which has been
found to possess 50-90% more oil, high citronellol and low elemol
content on an average, over the other varieties. Manjari is an erect
growing herb with yellowish green leaves and a dark purplestem.
Climate: Citronella thrives well under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. It requires humid
climate, abundant moisture and sunshine for its good growth. Long drought spells or
excessive rainfall is harmful. Citronella is susceptible to frost. Grow well in plains and hills.
Soil: Citronella has been found to grown well under varying soil conditions but
sandy loam soil with abundant organic matter is the most suitable for its
cultivation. Heavy clay and light textured soils are not good. Calcareous and
water logged soils are unsuited. Citronella thrives well in a wide range of soil
pH ranging from 5.8 to 8.0. However, a pH of around 6.0 is the most suitable.
Land preparation: The land is brought to a fine tilth by ploughing and
harrowing Land is laid out into beds with irrigation channels.
Propagation: Viable seeds are not formed in citronella because of irregularities in meiosis
and therefore citronella is propagated through slips, obtained by dividing healthy mature
clumps. The bush is gently dug out and separated into a number of slips and each slip
contains 1-3 tillers. One year old clump on an average gives about 40-50 slips.
Planting: The slips are planted in May- June. The slips are planted at a distance of
60cm x 60cm apart. However in areas where the soil is very fertile and the climatic
conditions support luxurious growth spacing of 90cm x 90cm may be followed. It is
better if the slips are planted on ridges to avoid water –logging. Irrigate immediately
after planting. Keep the soil moist for 3 -4 weeks, within which it gets established.
Manures and Fertilizers: It is a soil exhausting crop therefore requires liberal application of
manures and fertilizers. In Red soils of Karnataka, where the plant grow throughout the year
10 t/ ha of FYM is applied. A fertilizer dose of 200 kg N; 80 kg P and 50 kg K is given. In Tamil
Nadu; basal dose of 60 kg P and 50 kg K are to be applied. 125 kg Nitrogen is given in equal
splits one month after each cutting. Nitrogen is given in 4 splits in North, 5-6 splits in South.
The split doses of Nitrogen are given first one month after planting and the remaining after
each harvest at an interval of 3-4 months. The CIMAP, Lucknow, has recommended a spray of
0.5% Fe through ferrous sulphate + Citric acid to check the spread ofchlorosis.
Irrigation: Citronella requires sufficient moisture for good growth and yield of leaves. In
the areas where the annual rainfall is about 200-250cm, well distributed over the year and
humidity is high, supplementary irrigation is not necessary. In the drier months, however,
irrigation may be provided and this increases the yield. Java citronella is grown as an
irrigated crop in Karnataka and A.P. It is grown as rain fed crop in high rainfall
areas like Assam. 16-20 irrigations are required at 7-10 dayinterval.
Intercultural: Citronella plantations should be kept weed –free. Check weeds
up to 3-4 months after planting and after each cutting. 3 -4 weedings are
required per year. Manual weeding or weeding by running a cultivator is done.
Pests and Diseases:
Pests: During dry season the crop may be affected by yellowing and crinkling disease (due to
mites). The emerging leaves become wrinkled and pale. It may fail to open and the part may
die. This may be controlled by spraying a mixture of Docofol (Kelthane) @ 2 ml/lit and Ethion
(Tafethion, 50 EC) @ 1 ml/lit along with a wetting agent like Triton AE or Enditron AE @ 0.5
ml/lit. In the subsequent years stem borer and in rainfed condition termite may infest the crop.
These can be controlled by applying Furadan @ 20 kg/ha or by spraying 0.5
reported to cause the most damage to theplants.
Diseases: Leaf blight caused by Curvularia sp can be controlled by spraying
solani is controlled by spraying Hexaconazole5%.
The crop sometimes may show yellowing of growing leaves indicating a mixed
deficiency of Zinc, Molybdenum and Sulphur. Two or three foliar sprays of a complete
micro-nutrient mixture at fortnightly intervals are sufficient to combat the deficiency.
Harvesting: The crop is ready for the first harvest after about 9 months of planting.
Harvesting is done by using an ordinary sickle at about 20-45 cm above the ground.
Under Karnataka conditions, the crop is harvested in the month of March, June and
September. The crop flowers during October – November and the flowering stalks
should be nipped off to discourage flowering. If the flowering stalks are allowed to
grow, the plants will tend to age very soon and their life span may be reduced. Three
to four cuttings are taken per year. Should not be harvested too soon or too late
affects the quality of oil adversely. Optimum interval between two cuttings is 90 days;
if delayed leaves are partially dried and oil content declines. Generally the crop once
planted yields a profitable income for about 3-4 years and should be replanted after
this period. Well maintained plantations may thrive longer.
Yield: The yield of leaves may range from 15-20t/ha in the first year and 20-25t/ha in
the second and third years. The yield of oil obtained during the first year is about 100-
150 kg/ha and in subsequent years about 200-250 kg/ha oil may be obtained. Oil
content varies with age, climate, soil fertility and method of distillation.
Distillation: Oil is extracted by steam distillation from herbage. Distil soon after harvest.
Semi dried leaves are chopped into bits. Delay in distillation affects aroma and colour of oil.

CHAPTER7(iv) Production technology ofPalmarosa

Botanical name: Cymbopogan martini var motia
Family: Poaceae/Graminae
Origin: India
Distribution: Outside India, the crop is grown commercially in Indonesia, the East African
countries, Cuba and Brazil. Grows wild in forests of A.P, M.P, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Major constituent: Geraniol
Plant parts used: Tender stems, leaves and flower stalks
Description of the plant: Palmarosa is an aromatic, perennial grass, which attains a
height of 2-3 m. The aerial parts die in the winter. Being very susceptible to frost, its
leaves and shoots may dry up even in November when there is early frost, but usually
Importance and Uses:
Essential oil from palmarosa (Rusha or Rosha) is used to extract Geraniol.
The essential oil (geraniol) has rose like aroma hence useful for
perfume, soap and tobacco industries.
Oil of palmarosa is one of the most important essential
oils. Oil of palmarosa chiefly contains 70-80 % geraniol.
The palmarosa oil occupies 3rd place in the export of essential oil.
Climate: Hardy and drought resistant plant. It grows well in areas receiving 100
– 150 cm annual rainfall. Winter should be less severe. Exposure to sunlight is
essential. It does not perform under shade.
Soil: Light loamy soils with good water infiltration are ideal.
Motia: This variety is also referred as “Rosha grass” or “Russa grass”
and yields oil with a high geraniol content (75.90%), which is also called
East Indian Geranium Oil or Russa Oil.
Sofia: It is known as ginger grass and grown wildly in India and it yields
oil of lower geraniol content.
IW 31244: Released by NBPGR
RRL (B) – 77 and RRL (B) 71: Released by RRL, Bhubaneswar.
Trishna and Tripta – Hybrid developed by CIMAP, Lucknow. Give 40%
more oil and has 93% Geraniol.
Some of the high yielding varieties under this crop are Sel. IW-31243 and IW-31245,
released under the All India Co-ordinated project on the improvement of
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants from the CIMAP Lucknow.
PRC-1 is another important variety recommended for cultivation.
Propagation: By seed and rooted slips.
Nursery raising: First a nursery is raised. Beds are raised well prepared and well
manured.Seeds@2.5kgperhaissownat15-20cmspacedlines.Sowingisdone during
May – June. Nursery beds are irrigated daily. Germination will be
Slips: Slips are collected from elite clump. They are separated and planted during April –
May. Ready for transplanting after 3 months during June- July or August - September. Oil
Land preparation: The main field for raising palmarosa should be prepared by
ploughing 3-4 times, followed by forming ridges and furrows at 90 cm apart.
The seedlings are transplanted at 60 cm spacing in the ridges.
Planting: Planted during June- July. Irrigate immediately.
Manures and fertilizers: If grown on fertile soils, does not manure during the
first year as it promote vegetative growth and reduce oil yield.
Inlessfertilesoils,basally10tFYM;20kgN;50kgPand40kgKperhaareto be applied.
Top dressing with 40 kg Nitrogen each time for three timesstarting
from 45 days after planting is to be done. Micronutrient like zinc (ZnS0
4 25 Kg/
ha) is beneficial to increase the oil yield ofpalmarosa.
Irrigation: If rainfall is more than 150 cm, the crop can be grown as rain fed crop. If
rainfall is less than that, irrigation has to be given at 7 – 10 day interval. When the
Weeding: Keep the field weed free for the first 2-3 months after planting and
one month after each harvest.
Pests and diseases: The crop is not attacked by any pest or disease of a
serious nature. Leaf blight and the symptoms of yellowing of leaves and
necrosis and leaf spot are reported in the crop.
Harvesting: First harvest is taken in 4-5 months after planting. Harvest 15-20
cm above the ground at the time of flowering to early seed formation stage.
The right time for harvesting is when the plants just begin to bloom as the leaves contain
higher oil content during the blooming period. The grass yield more oil recovery if dried for
Yield: Palmarosa yields 15 to 20 tonnes of herbage per ha in a year with oil yield
of 50-60 Kg per year. The plantation can be maintained for about 8 to 10 years, but
Distillation: Oil is extracted by steam distillation. Herbage is shade dried for 24
hours and chopped for distillation. Oil recovery is 0.3 to 0.4%. It takes 4 hours
for complete recovery of the oil.

CHAPTER7(v) Production technology ofOcimum

Botanical name: Ocimum sanctum L.
Family: Lamiaceae: Labiatae
Plant parts used: Leaves, seeds, roots
Major constituent: Eugenol(71%), Eugenol Methyl Ether (20%)
Origin: India
Distribution: Ocimum has wide distributions, covering the entire Indian
subcontinent, ascending up to 1,800 m in the Himalayas and as far as the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This plant-occupies a wide range of habitats.
Description of the plant: It is much branched, perennial, herb with purplish
tinged quadrangular stem and 30-75 cm tall. Leaves are simple, petiolate,
opposite, sub-ovate and serrate possessing glandular hair which secretes
aromatic oil. The flowers are small, protandrous, highly cross pollinated.
Importance and Uses:
The plant is also used as a pot herb: its leaves are used as a condiment
in salads, and other dishes.
The leaves, seed and root are medicinally useful.
The leaves also contain ascorbic acid (82 mg 100 g) and carotene (2.5 mg/100 g).
The juice of the leaves possesses diaphoretic, antiperiodic. Stimulating,
expectorant and antipyretic properties.
It is used in bronchitis, applied to the skin in ringworm and other
cutaneous diseases and as drops to relieve earache.
An infusion of the leaves is used as a stomachic in gastric disorders of children. If
taken internally, it strengthens the liver and heart and is a good appetizer.
It cures amenorrhea and promotes the secretion of milk in lactating
women. The leaves, if chewed, give relief from toothache.
The leaf-juice is applied to reduce inflammations.
The seeds rubbed with cow’s milk are given for vomiting and diarrhea.
The juice of the fresh leaves, flower-tops and the slender roots are
considered to be good antidotes for snakebite and scorpion sting.
It has marked insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.
Types and Varieties: In India, two types of O.sanctum are under cultivation:
1. Green type (Sri Tulsi)- is the mostcommon
2. Purpletype(KrishnaTulsi)-bearspurpleleavesandispreferredinthe trade
for its higher potency of thedrug.
Climate: Flourishes well under high rainfall with humid conditions. Long days
and high temperatures favours good growth and higher yields
slightly acidic. Well drained soil suitable for good growth and higheryields.
generations on account of the highly cross-pollinated nature of the crop.
Hence, for fresh plantings, the growers have to take freshseeds.
Nursery: Prepared raised beds of 15’ x 4’x 9” size and well manured by the addition of
FYM. About 200-300 g seeds are enough to raise seedlings for planting one hectare of
land. The seeds should be sown 2 cm deep in the nursery-beds. After sowing the
seeds in the nursery, a mixture of FYM and soil is thinly spread over the seeds and
irrigated with a sprinkler-hose. The seeds germinate in 8-12 days and the seedlings
are ready for transplanting in about 6 weeks time, at the 4-5 leafstage.
Land Preparation: The land is brought to a fine tilth and laid out into plots of convenient
sizes for irrigation. It is preferable to add 15t/ha of FYM during the preparation of the land.
Transplanting: It is recommended to plant the seedlings at a distance of 40 x 40 cm, 40 x
50 cm and 50 x 30 cm to get high herbage and oil-yield per hectare at Lucknow, New Delhi
and Indore, respectively. The plots are irrigated immediately after transplanting. The
seedlings will establish well by the time of the second irrigation. At this stage gap filling
and replacement of the poor plants is done so that a uniform stand is achieved.
Season: The nursery can be raised in the third week of February and
transplanting is generally started in the middle of April. This can be
undertaking in the month of March, if the seedlings are raised in beds.
Fertilization: 120 kg N/ha 60 kg P2O5/ha. Half the dose of N and the entire dose of P2O5
are given as a basal dose. The remaining N is applied in two split doses, after the first and
second cuttings. The application of the micronutrients Co and Mn at 50 and 100 ppm
concentrations, respectively, is reported to increase the oil-yield significantly.
Irrigation: Irrigation depends upon the moisture content of the soil. In summer, 3
irrigations per month are necessary whereas, during the remaining period, it
should be done as and when required, except in the rainy season when no
irrigation is necessary. Altogether, about 12-15 irrigations are sufficient in a year.
Weeding:Thefirstweedingisdoneonemonthafterplanting,andthesecond4 weeks
after the first. After this, no further weeding is required as the plants become
bushy, thereby naturally suppressing theweeds.
Interculture:Onehoeing,twomonthsafterplanting,issufficient.Thecropmay also
be earthed-up at thisstage.

Diseases and pests:
Among the insects, the larvae of leaf-rollers sticking to the under surface of
the leaves fold them backwards lengthwise, thus webbing them. Malathion
(0.2%) may be sprayed to control this insect.
The plant is susceptible to powdery mildew caused by Oidium spp., seedling blight
caused by Rhizoctonia solani and roor-rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola. Powdery
mildew can be controlled by spraying wettable sulphur (4 g/l of water), and the latter
two diseases are managed by improved phyto-sanitary measures and by drenching
the nursery-beds with a solution of mercurial fungicide.
Harvesting and Yield: Harvesting at full bloom stage and first harvest at 90-95
after planting and afterwards, it may be harvested at 65- 75 days’ intervals. Cut
15-20 cm from ground level. Harvesting should be done on bright, sunny days
in order to obtain good quality oil-yield.
Yield: About 5 t /ha twice or thrice year and whole herb contain 0.1-0.23%
essential oil. Oil yield is 10-23 kg/ha.
Distillation of Oil
The harvested produce is usually distilled in its fresh form. However, the oil quality and
yield do not diminish up to 6-8 hours after harvest, buy any further delay may cause
considerable loss in yield and quality of oil. Steam-distillation is found to be superior to

CHAPTER7(vi) Production technology of Rose

Botanical Name: Rosa damascena Mill
Family: Rosaceae
Plant parts used: Flower
Origin: Indigenous to Europe

Distribution: Bulgaria, Turkey, France, Italy, Morocco, Russia and India are the
main countries where it is cultivated on a large scale for oil production. In
India it is commercially cultivated in some parts of UP, Haldi Ghati and
Pushkar in Rajasthan and in Jammu and Kashmir.
Description of the plant: It is a perennial, hardy shrub with a long life span of 20-30
years under cultivation. It grows to a height of 2.5 to 3 m. The leaf is a compound type
having 5-6 leaflets. Flowers are scented pink, red and sometimes white or striped.

Rose Products:
Rose oil, Rose concrete and absolute, Rosewater, Rose Attar,
Gulkand, Gulroghan, Pankhuri, Dried rose buds etc.

Varieties: Indica, Jwala, Super jwala, Himroz, Hot himroz. 
Jwala is suitable for cultivation in subtropical northern plains, mid-hills and mild temperate regions up to 1200 m altitude, Himroz is suitable for cultivation in mild temperate to cold temperate regions (1200 to 2500 m altitude). It is cold tolerant and grows in temperate areas without any visual sign of winter injury to flower buds.

Climate: Mild temperate climate is best suited. At the time of flowering, the temperature
should be between 25
0C to 30 0C and relative humidity above 60%. High air humidity
above 60% and moderate temperature 15
0C to 20 0C gives more flower yield.
Soil: The roses flourish well at the foothills. It withstands a wide range of soil
pH conditions from 6 to 8 and silty clay loam to sandy loam.
Propagation: It is propagated through one-year-old stem cuttings. Stem cuttings
are collected at the time of pruning in mid-October to the end of December, 20 cm
long and 0.75- 1.50 cm thick cuttings are planted in the nursery, 2/3 of the length is
inserted into the soil, IBA @ 200-250 ppm is given to induce rooting. These cuttings
are ready after one year for transplanting into the main field.

Planting time: November to mid-January. Rose plants can be also be planted in the
the month of the rainy season.
Planting distance: 1 m x 1 m or 1 m x 0.5 m
Pit size: 45 x 45 x 45 cm in good soil and 60 x 60 x 60 cm in poor soil
Irrigation: Plants are irrigated immediately after planting. After that 12-15 days
intervals during peak periods. However, when plants are established properly
after two years, the frequency of the irrigation may be reduced.

Interculture: It is required to keep the plants free of weeds after planting. Usually
2-3 times weeding and hoeing are required to be done during first year.

Manure and fertilizers:
FYM 15-20 tonnes/ha and 100-120 kg NPK (18:32:16) mixed
fertilizer should be applied at the time of transplanting of rooted cuttings into the
pits. After two years, 160-200 kg nitrogen, 60-90 kg phosphorus and 40-60 kg
potash per hectare per year are needed in the rose plantations.

Pruning: Pruning is a very important operation in Rosa damascene. It requires a
dormant or resting period before flowering. The best time of pruning is October in
North India. 

Insect and pest: Aphids, Caterpillars, Thrips, Red SpiderMite
Disease: Black Spot, Rust, Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew

Harvesting: The flowers are harvested in the early hours of the day when they just open.
Flowers are plucked by hand being nipped of just below the calyx.

Yield: Well maintained Rose plantation yields about 3.5- 4.5 tonnes of flowers /ha/year.

Distillation: Oil is extracted by steam distillation. Flower petals used for oil extraction.
Oil recovery: 0.025-0.030%
Oil yield: 0.75 – 1.5 kg/ha
Rose concrete:0.35-0.45%
Rose absolute:0.15-0.20%

CHAPTER7(vii) Production technology of Geranium

Botanical name: Pelargoniumgraveolens
Family: Geraniaceae
Origin and distribution: Geranium is a native of the Cape Province in South
Africa. It is commercially cultivated in France, Belgium, Spain, Morocco,
Madagascar, Egypt, Reunion Island, Congo, China and India. Presently, it is
being commercially cultivated mainly in the Nilgiris and Kodaikanal Hills of
Tamil Nadu and in and around Bangalore in Karnataka, also in Uttarkhand.
Plant parts used: Leaves and terminal shoots
Major constituent: The chief constituent of the oil is geraniol and citronellol.
Importance anduses:
Geranium is one of the important aromatic plants, yielding an essential
oil that is highly-priced for its very profound and strong rose-like
odour. The plant is also known as rose geranium.
Chief constituents is Geraniol 68 to 75% and Citronellol (23 – 40%).
The pure scented geranium oil is almost a perfume by itself and blends
well with all other perfumes.
It is widely used in scenting soaps and for the isolation of rhodinal
which forms part of most high-grade perfumes.
India is importing more than 20 t of this oil from other countries to meet
the local demands of the Indian perfumery industries.
Scented geranium is a bushy, aromatic plant. The stem is cylindrical, woody at the
base, pubescent, green when young and turning brown with age. The leaves are highly
aromatic in nature.

Types of rose geranium: There are two types of rose geraniums
1. Algerian or Tunician: This type of scented geranium is slender with
flowers of a dark pink colour. It is being grown in the Nilgiris and is
unsuitable for wet conditions. This variety yields 50-60% more oil
with a more delicate odour than that of the Reuniontype.
2. Bourbon or Reunion: Grown in the Nilgiris and Anamalai hills, the plant is

content is higher during the summer months from April to June. The terminal
portion with 6 to 12 leaves contains more oil than the middle and basal portions.
Kodaikanal-1: Released by HRS, Kodaikanal (TNAU) give high herbage
(45.2 t per ha) and oil yield (54 kg) oil contains 60 % of geraniol.
KKL-1: This is the Algerian and Reunion type variety, the clone PG-7
recorded 0.3% essential oil has been released under the name ‘KKL-
1’ at the Horticultural Research Station, Kodaikanal.
Sel-8: The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR),
Bangalore, has found ‘Sel-8’ a Reunion type, as the highest yielder
under Bangalore conditions and has recommended forcultivation.
Hemanti, Bipuli, and Kunti are the other varieties released by the
CIMAP, Lucknow, for cultivation in the plains of North India.
Kelkar and Ooty, are the other varieties available in this crop.
Climate: Scented geranium can be grown in temperate, subtropical and tropical
climates at various altitudes from 1 000 to 2 200 m. It thrives best in subtropical
climates with a temperature ranging from 5°C to 23°C. However, temperatures below
3°C will kill the plant. Warm winters coupled with mild summer temperatures and,
well-distributed annual rainfall ranging from 100-150 cm is ideal. However, heavy
rainfall results in water-logging, causes root-rot and stunted growth. It has been
observed that it grows equally well at much lower altitudes and tolerates higher
temperatures up to 43° C in the plains when grown under irrigated conditions.
Soil: Scented geranium is shallow-rooted crop and it requires well drained deep,
porous soil rich in organic matter. Scented geranium perform well in red lateritic
soils with a pH range of 5.5-8.0, though a calcium rich porous soil is the best.
Propagation: Scented geranium is easily propagated by cuttings, since there is no seed
setting in scented geranium, vegetative propagation is must. Terminal cuttings of stem about
20 cm long and consisting of about 8 nodes are the best suited for propagation. Cuttings are
taken from healthy, vigorously growing plants during November. Cuttings are defoliated
except top 3-4 leaves. Slanting cut is made just below a node. Bottoms of cuttings are dipped
in 0.3% Benlate or Bavistin 0.1% and then in rooting plant growth regulators like IBA or IAA at
200 ppm. The cuttings are planted in raised beds of 3 m long and 1 m wide. The soil should be
well mixed with powdered FYM. The cuttings are planted with at least twonodes
buried in the soil at a spacing of 8-10 cm. Before root initiation, temporary shade is
provided and the beds are watered regularly. Cuttings root in 30-40 days and ready
Recently, its propagation through leaf petioles has also been reported to give a good
rooting percentage (75%), which will help to multiply this plant in larger numbers than the
traditional method of propagation using 20 cm-long cuttings. The CIMAP, Lucknow, has
developed a protocol for large–scale production of scented geranium calli-clones and plants
have been obtained under field conditions with improved oil-yield and quality.
Land preparation: Ploughing, harrowing and planking are to be done
thoroughly for preparation of land. Manures, P and K are applied at the last
ploughing and incorporated. The land is laid out into ridges and furrows.
Planting: Healthy and disease free rooted cuttings with well developed root system
and a crown of leaves are selected for planting. The cuttings are carefully dug out
from the nursery and planted at a spacing of 60 cm x 60 cm. Planting should be done
during May- June in hilly areas and December- January in plains. Irrigate on alternate
days for a month and later at weekly intervals. Plants establish within two months.
Manures and fertilizers:
Prior to transplanting the cuttings, 10 t of FYM, 35 kg N, 35 kg P
2O5 and
35 kg K
2O/ha are incorporated into the soil.
A second dose of nitrogen at 35 kg/ha is applied about 2 months after the first
application, Further, nitrogen is given in two equal split doses for each harvest-the
first dose being just after the crop is harvested and the second two months later.
In addition, the application of 20 kg/ha of zinc sulphate and 10 kg/ha of boron has been
reported to increase the herbage yield. Similarly, an application of copper (20 kg/ha)
and molybdenum (30 kg/ha/year) in four split doses after each harvest has been
found to increase the yield.
alternate days for about 10-15 days and then reduced to twice a week. The
schedule is modified during the winter and summer months at intervals of 7 to 10
days, depending on the situation. Though scented geranium tolerates short
periods of drought, water-logging of the crop must be completelyavoided.
Interculture: Keep the field weed free during the first 2-3 months after planting
and up to one month after every harvest. Mulching helps in reducing weed
infestation, the number of irrigations and produced less weed biomass.
Pests and diseases: The incidence of pest and disease is not severe in the geranium crop.
However, it is found to be affected by root knot nematodes and wilt disease.
Roots-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla): Affect the
Scented geranium plant. Application of Aldicarb @ 20 kg/ha to the soil reduces
the incidence of root-knot.
Wilt: The crop is affected by wilt disease, caused by the Fusarium species, and
Botrydeplodia theobromae, which are soil borne fungi. Dip the cuttings in 0.03%
Benlate solution at the time of planting in the nursery. Prior to transplanting the
rooted cuttings must be again dipped in 0.03% Benlate solution and then planted. The
crop is sprayed with 0.03% Benlate solution about 2 weeks before it is harvested.
Harvesting: Geranium is harvested 4-5 months after transplanting, when the leaves begin
to turn light-green and exhibit a change from a lemon-like odour to that of rose. However,
this requires careful observation and experience. The crop should be harvested using a
sharp sickle and sent for distillation immediately. After every harvest, hoeing, fertilizer
application and irrigation are done according to the schedule. The plant then puts forth
fresh shoots, grows faster, and reaches the next harvesting stage in 4 months. Thus, a
total of 3 harvests can be obtained for 3-6 years. The oil content is higher during the
summer months, from April to June. The terminal portion with 6-12 leaves contains more
oil than the middle and basal portions.
Yield: The quality and yield of oil will be better if the crop is harvested at the
appropriate time of maturity. For a higher yield, a good plant population in the field is
necessary. A minimum of 25,000 plants should be maintained in a hectare in a year
which, in turn, may yield 15 kg of oil on steam-distillation. The recovery of the oil
ranges from 0.08 to 0.15%, depending upon the season of harvest and type of
material. Cultivation under poly house cover is reported to increase herb and oil
yields up to 53% over the conventional planting of the scented geranium crop.
Distillation: The freshly-harvested terminals are used for the distillation of oil.
The oil is extracted by a simple steam distillation method.

Production technology ofVetiver

Botanical name: Vetiveria zizanioides(syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides)
Family: Poaceae
Origin: India and Srilanka
Distribution: Vetiver is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and is widely
distributed in tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. It is cultivated extensively in Java,
Reunion Island, Indonesia, Haiti, Jamaica, Zaire, Vietnam and Brazil. In India it is
found growing wild in the forests of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. It is also found in
some parts of Assam, Jammu, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
However it is systematically cultivated as a crop in Kerala andKarnataka.
Plant parts used: Roots
Major constituents: The major constituents are vetivone, vetiverols,
vetiverenyl, vetivernate, benzoic acid and palmiticacid.
Importance and uses:
The economic part of the plant is the root, which possesses a most agreeable
aroma and is employed to scent clothes, either by itself or in the form of sachets.
The oil of vetiver is one of the most valuable and most important
perfumer’s raw materials, widely used in perfumeries, cosmetics and for
the scenting of soaps. It also acts as a natural fixative.
The oil of vetiver blends well with other oils particularly with
sandalwood, patchouli and rose.
Medicinally it is reported to be used as a carminative in flatulence and
as anthelminthic and possesses stimulant and refrigerant properties.
It is locally applied to relive pains on the body
Roots are used to make mats, brooms, screens, mattresses along
with bamboo. Roots are used in pharmaceuticals.
Young leaves are used as fodder and bedding for horses and
cattle. Dry Leaves are used as roofing material and for mulching.
It is one of the best soil-binders and is being used extensively in arid
zones to check soil erosion.
Varieties: The grass growing wild in North India and that cultivated in South
1. Flowering or seeding type: They grow wild in North India. The North Indian
type is poor in oil yield, but its oil quality is superior. Oil from North Indian
types has superior aroma. Ex. Akhila, Bharatpur,Musanagar.
2. Nonfloweringornonseedingtype:TheygrowinSouthIndia.Thesouth Indian
type vetiver is good in oil yield, but the quality isinferior.
Improved Varieties:
The CIMAP has developed two superior clones, KS-1 and KS-2 from a
collection from Bharatpur. An improved tetraploid strain “Sugandha” has also
been released by the CIMAP and is reported to be superior in terms of oil-yield.
Pusa hybrids (1-30) have been evolved by NBPGR, New Delhi. Of these
F1 hybrids Hyb-26 gives higher yield of roots (14.5q/ha) with an oil
content of 1.50%. Whereas hybrids 26, 7 and 16 perform better in saline
and alkaline soils with high root and oil yield.
Under Bangalore conditions, hybrid -8 has been found to be better. Its
rootsyield1%essentialoilandpossess70-85%vetiverolcontent.The yield
of root ranged from 12-15q/ha when harvested at 15 months age.
Station, Odakkali is reported to give god root and oil yield in Kerala.
The CIMAP, Lucknow has released few new varieties based on the oil odour value.
They are Kesari, Gulabi and Dharini.
Climate: The crop prefers tropical and subtropical climate for its proper
growth, development and essential oil yield. It prefer mild climate for the best
performance. It is cultivated in 100-400 cm rainfall in South India, as well as in
Bharatpur area in Rajasthan receiving scanty rain. Shade has unfavourable
influence on root growth. It stands well against winds and storms.
Soil: Vetiver can be grown on almost every kind of soil. Light soils, however, should be
avoided as the roots obtained produce a very low percentage of oil. Well drained, sandy loam
and red lateritic soil rich in organic matter are considered to be ideal as the roots produced in
such soils are thick and contain more essential oil. It can be grown even in saline and alkaline
soils, with a pH range of 8.5 to 10.0. Compact heavy soils restrict root growth
and pulling out of roots is difficult.
Land preparation: The land is ploughed to a depth of 20-25cm repeatedly and the
soil is mixed with the recommended dose of manure and fertilizers and made
ready for planting. Propagation: Vetiver can be propagated through seeds or
slips. Seeding is found to be profuse in the crop, in areas where it occurs in the
wild and regeneration takes place from self-sown seeds. In south India where the
crop is cultivated on a large scale, the non-seeding type is grown. This is
Planting: Best time is June- July, at the advent of the rainy season. If irrigation facilities
are available, it is better to plant during March- April. Slips of 15-20 cm long are separated
from clumps. Top portions are cut. Two or three slips are planted in each hole of 5-8 cm
depthandthesoilispressedaroundthehole.Vetiverisplantedinrows45cmapartwitha plant to
plant distance of 30cm. A spacing of 60 x 25 cm is also recommended to allow 60 000
plants/ha. Planting should be done when there is adequate soils moisture. Irrigate
immediately after planting. Give irrigations up to 10-15 days till slipsestablish.
Manures and fertilizers: Vetiver crop may be supported with 10 t FYM, 25kg/ha
each of N, P and K for obtain economic yields. While the entire quantity of
FYM, half N and a full dose of P and K are applied at the time of planting, the
remaining half of N is given after about 6 months of planting. A fertilizer dose
of 60 kg N, 22.5 each of P
2O5 and K2O is recommended in Kerala.
Irrigation: In areas where rainfall is good and well distributed throughout the year
and humidity is high, supplemental irrigation is not necessary. However, in drier
areas, about 8-10 irrigations will be required in order to obtain the optimum yield.
Inter culture: Once the plants have established and grown into bushes, the weed
problem is not severe because of the nature of the bushes. However, in the newly
established plantations, 3-4 weeding are necessary until the bushes are formed.
Pests and diseases:
Pests: There are no serious insect pests except for the ants attack the roots.

Diseases: Very few diseases have been reported on vetiver. During the rainy
season the plant is attacked by Fusarium spp. It can be effectively controlled
by drenching the soil with Bordeaux mixture (1%).
The crop planted in July should be harvested after 18 months to get the
maximum oil yield.
Oil content and yield are less during rainy season as the oil is diffused into
Harvesting roots during dry season from December to February is more preferable.
Above ground portions are cut to 15 to 20 cm above the ground. Clumps
are uprooted by digging forks. Soil is dug up to 30 to 40 cm.
Clumps are beaten to remove adhering soil and roots are separated from the base,
washed and dried under shade for 1-2days before distillation.
Yield: 5-6 tonnes of roots per ha. It gives 15 to 16 kg of oil and 1 to 1.5 per cent
oil on dry weight basis. A root yield of up to 14-18 q/ha has been obtained in
North India. The oil contains 65 to 75 per cent Vetiverol.
Distillation: Oil is extracted by steam distillation. Herbage is steeped in water
for 12 hours, chopped to 5-10 cm long

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