Ornamental | Unit IV - Chapter 6 Production Technology | 3rd Semester

 CHAPTER6(iii) Production technology ofAloe

Botanical name: Aloe vera and Aloe barbadensis

Family: Liliaceae

Origin: Indigenous to Eastern and Southern Africa

Distribution: The genus Aloe is widespread throughout the entire African

continent, but the tropical regions are particularly rich. It is also grown as an

ornamental in India. Aloe vera is cultivated in fairly large areas many parts of

India viz. Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, MP, and Gujarat.

Plant part: Leaves, seeds, roots

Major constituent: Anthraquainone glycosides Barbaloin

Description of the plant: Aloe is a coarse looking, perennial, shallow rooted plant with a

short stem, 30-60 cm high. The plants have multiple tuberous roots and many supporting

roots penetrating into the soil. Aloe does not have a true stem but produces bloom stalks.

The fleshly leaves are densely crowded, strongly, cuticularized and have a spiny margin

with thin walled tubular cells. The flowers vary from yellow to rich orange in colour and

arearrangedinaxillaryspikes.Theovaryissuperior,triocularwithaxileplacentation.The plant

does not produce many viableseeds.

Importance and uses:

Twoofthemajorproductsderivedfromtheleavesaretheyellowbitter juice

consisting of aloin and the gel consisting ofpolysaccharides.


powder, concentrates are alsoprepared.



source of the drug‘aloe’.

These are extensively used as active ingredients in laxative and antiobesity preparation, as moisturizer, emollient or wound healer in various

cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

Aloe gel contains gluco mannan which is a polysaccharide similar to

guar used in preparations of burn, first aid medicines.

Aloe and aloin are extensively used as active ingredients in laxative preparations.

Extracts of aloe or aloin are used in sunscreens, X-ray / burns,

dermatitis and other cosmetic preparations.

It is reputed remedy for intestinal worm in children.

It is used in haemophilia, skin, liver disorder, constipation and rectal

fissures piles. Varieties: Aloe vera var chinensis is commonly cultivated

Soil: Hardy and grown on variety of soils, does well in sandy coastal and

loamy soils with pH up to 8.5. Water logged and problem soils not suitable

Climate: Wide adaptability, hence cultivation is possible throughout the country

and prefers warm humid dry climate with 150-200 cm to 35-40 cm yearly rainfall.

Propagation: Root suckers or rhizome cuttings

Land preparation: The field should be prepared well before the onset of

monsoon and small furrows opened.

Planting: 15-18 cm long root suckers, rhizome cuttings are planted with a

spacing of 60 x 30 cm or 60 x 45 cm and buried 2/3 portion under the ground.

Fertilizer: Application of a mixture of 150kg/ha of nitrogen, potassium and

phosphorus is recommended. The fertilizers are applied in the soil near the

root system, after the plants are established.

Irrigation: Immediately after planting needs one irrigation and totally 4 to 5

irrigations / year required.

Interculture: The land is kept weed free by weeding the plot as and when necessary.

Pests and diseases:


Mealy bug- For controlling mealy bugs sprays Chlorpyriphos 2 ml in 1

litre of water. Diseases: Leaf spot, Leaf rot and Anthracnose

Leaf spot: Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying the crop with 0.2%

Mancozeb at weekly intervals.

Leaf rot and Anthracnose: Spray the crop with Bavistin 10 g with Carbendazim 2g

per litre and repeat at 10 days interval for controlling leaf rot and anthracnose.



Harvesting: Plants should be removed by manually or with tractor after eight

months of planting. Commercial yield starts from second year to up to five years.

Yield: Fresh weight 10000 – 12000 kg/ha.



CHAPTER6(vi) Production technology ofPeriwinkle

Botanical name: Catharanthus roseus

Family: Apocyanaceae

Plant parts used: Leaves, seeds, roots

Major constituent: Ajmalicine (raubasin)

Origin and Distribution: The plant is a native of Madagascar and from there it

has spread to India, Indonesia, Indo-China, Philippines, South Africa, lsrael,

USA and other parts of the world. In India, it is being grown in Tamil Nadu,

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Assam.


It has medicinal importance owing to the presence of alkaloids like

ajmalicine (raubasin), serpentine and reserpine in roots, which is well

known for their hypotensive and antispasmodic properties.

It gained importance after the isolation of vincristine and vinblastine

alkaloids from leaves, which have importance in cancer therapy.

Vincristine sulphate is being marketed under the trade name ONCOVIN,



which is used against acute leukemia and vinblastine sulphate as

VELBE to cure Hodgkin’s disease.

Farmers prefer it because of its wide adaptability and its ability to grow

in marginal lands and its drought tolerance.

Periwinkle is a perennial ornamental herb found throughout India on

waste lands and sandy tracts.

It has medicinal importance owing to the presence of indole alkaloids raubasin

(ajmalicine) and serpentine in its root which has hypertensive properties.

The leaves contain two alkaloids viz., Vinblastine and Vincristine which

form the constituents of patented cancer drugs and vincristine alkaloids

are distributed in different parts of the plant but the roots contain the

maximum (0.75 t to 1.20%) followed by the leaf (0.60 to 0.65%).

USA is the world’s largest user of this plant’s raw material. A single firm

which has the patent to manufacture Vinblastine and Vincristine sulphate

have been consuming more than 100 t of leaves of the plant annually.



Description of plant: It is a perennial herb which grows up to 90-120 cm tall. It

is a diploid with the chromosome number 2n = 16.

Varieties:Therearenorecognizedvarietiesbuttherearethreelocaltypesbasedonthecolour of the

flowers viz., alba with white flowers, roseus with pink rose coloured flowers and ocillata with

white flowers having rose purple spot in the center are recognized. The first type is being

cultivated because of its higher alkaloid content. Recently, two white flowered varieties named

“Nirmal” and “Dhawal” have been released by the CIMAP,Lucknow.

Climate: The distribution of the plant shows that there is no specificity in its climatic

requirements. It comes up well in tropical and subtropical areas. However, the growth

in tropical areas is better than in the subtropical areas, where its growth is slow due

to the low temperatures in winter. It can be successfully grown up to an elevation of

1300 m above sea level. A well distributed rainfall of 100 cm or more is ideal for

raising this crop on a commercial scale under rainfedconditions.

Soil: The crop is quite hardy and grows well on a wide variety of soils, except those

which are alkaline or water-logged. Deep sandy loam to loam soils of medium fertility

are preferred for its large-scale cultivation. Because, in this soil there is not only a

better development of roots, but it is also easy to take them out at harvest time.

Propagation: The plant is propagated from seeds. Fresh seeds are preferable as they lose

viabilityonlongstorage.Seedscanbesowndirectlyinthefiledortheplantsraisedinthe nursery

and transplanted later on. Direct sowing is to be done for plantations of a large area, as it

reduces the cost of sowing. About 2 to 3 kg seed are required for raising one hectare. The

seeds are mixed with sand about 10 times its weight for even distribution

andaresownduringbeginningofmonsooninrows45cmapart.Whentheplantsgrowup they are

thinned out leaving a distance of 25 to 30 cm between theplants.

For nursery sowing and transplanting, about 500 grams of seed sown in 200 square meters

bed is required for producing seedlings for one hectare. The seeds are sown in well prepared

beds during March or April in rows about 1.5 cm deep, covered with light soil and leaf mould

mixture and are watered to keep the bed moist. In about 10 days time the seeds germinate in 2

months time (height 6-7 cm) they become ready for transplanting. In the field, the seedlings

are transplanted at a spacing of 45 cm x 30 cm or 45 cm x 45cm.



Weeding: The crop requires two weeding, the first one about 60 days after

sowing or transplanting and the second one in another 60 days.

Irrigation: The plant does not require much water as they have drought

resistant capacity. In areas, where rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the

year, no irrigation is required, but in areas where monsoon is restricted, 4 to 5

irrigations are required during the life of the plant to get good yield.

Manures and fertilizers: FYM is applied at the rate of 10 – 15 t/ha to obtain good growth and

yield. If irrigation is available, green manure crops can be raised and ploughed into the field at

the time of flowering. In case organic manure is not applied it is advisable to apply a basal

dose of 20 kg N, 30 kg P2O5 and 30 kg of K2O per hectare per year. In addition, a top dressing

with 20 kg nitrogen can be given in two equal split doses during the season.

Pests and diseases: Plant is hardy hence devoid of pest and diseases.

Occasionally they suffer from little leaf due to infection by mycoplasma

resulting in stunted growth. This can be effectively checked by

uprooting and destroying the affected plants.

Die back / Twig blight/top rot is reported during monsoon. Control

measure is spraying Mancozeb at an interval of 10 -15 days.


Harvesting for leaves: Leaf stripping twice, first after 6 months and the second



Harvesting for roots: The crop is harvested one year after planting. The plants are cut

about 7.5 cm above the ground level and dried for the stem, leaves and seeds. The field is

then copiously irrigated and when it reaches proper condition for digging, it is ploughed

and the roots are collected. The roots are washed well and dried in the shade.



The total alkaloid content in the leaf varies from 0.15 to 1.34%, of which the

average content of vinblastine is 0.002%, while that of vincristine is 0.005%.

Yield: Under irrigated conditions, about 4t/ha of leaves, 1.5t/ha of stem and 1.5t/ha of roots, on

air dried basis may be obtained. Whereas, under rainfed conditions, the yield will be about



2 t/ha of leaves and 0.75t/ha each of stem and roots on air dried basis. The

total alkaloid content in the leaf varies from 0.15 to 1.34 % of which the

average content of Vinblastine is 0.002% while that of Vincristine is0.005%



CHAPTER6(vii) Production technology of Isabgol(Plantago)

Botanical name: Plantago ovata

Family: Plantaginaceae

Origin: Indigenous

Distribution: It is indigenous to the Persia and West Asia, extending upto the Sutlej, Sind and

West Pakistan. Isabgol crop has acquired the place of the ‘dollar earner’ crop of north Gujarat.

Southern Rajasthan, Punjab, Maharashtra and UP states are also grown isabgol crop.

Plant parts used: Seeds and husks

Major constituent: Xylose, arabinose and galacturonic acid

Description of the plant: It is a 30-40 cm tall stem less or short stemmed annual


capsule. The flowers are white and minute. Highly self-pollinated. The capsule is

ovate, 8mm long, releasing the smooth, dull, ovate seeds which are translucent

and convex. The seeds are covered with a translucent membrane, known as the

husk. The husked seeds are dark red andhard.



Importance and uses:

Isabgol is important for its seeds and husks which have been used in

indigenous medicine for many centuries.

It derives its name from two Persian words, ‘asp’ and ‘ghol’ meaning a

‘horse ear’ referring to its characteristic boat-shaped seeds.

The husk of the seed is economic part and it contains colloidal mucilage

mainly consisting of xylose, arabinose, galacturonic acid.

It has the property of absorbing and retaining water (40-90%) and

therefore it works as an anti-diarrhoea drug.

It is beneficial in chronic dysenteries of amoebic and bacillary origin.

The seed has also cooling and demulcent effect and is used in

ayurvedic, unani and allopathic medicines.

It is also used for treating constipation and intestinal disorders as it works as calorie

free fiber food, promoting regular bowel movement.

Varieties: Gujarat Isabgol-1 and Gujarat Isabgol -2 are the two varieties of this crop released

by Gujarat Agricultural University which have a yield potential of 800 – 900 kg and 1000 kg



per ha respectively. Another variety, ‘Niharika’, a mutant has been released by

the CIMAP, Lucknow, as a high yielding variety.

Climate It requires cool and dry weather and hence in India, the crop is grown

in winter i.e. from November – December to March-April. Humid weather at

maturity results in shattering of seeds. The temperature requirement for

maximum seed germination is reported to be 20 to 300C.

Soil: A light well drained sandy loam to rich loamy soil with a pH of 4.7 to 7.7 with high

nitrogen and low moisture content is ideal for growth of plants and high yield of seeds.

Preparation of land: Field must be free of weeds and clods and should have

fine tilth for good germination. The land is laid into flat beds of convenient size

i.e. 1.0 m x 3.0 m or 2.5 m x 2.5 m

Land preparation: Field must be free of weeds and clods. The number of

ploughing,harrowingandhoeingdependsuponthesoilconditions,previouscrop and

degree of weed infestation. The recommended dose of FYM (10-15t/ha) is applied

to the field at the time of last ploughing. The field should be divided into suitable

plots of convenient size (i.e. 1.0 m x 3.0 m or 2.5 m x 2.5 m), depending upon the

texture of the soil, the slope of the fieldand quantum of irrigation.

Seed sowing: To obtain high percentage of germination, seed should be taken from the

crop harvested at the end of the preceding crop season. Old seeds tend to lose viability


thiram@3gperkgofseedtoprotecttheseedlingsfromthepossibledamageofdamping off. The

seeds are small and light. Hence before sowing, the seed is mixed with sufficient quantity

of fine sand or sieved farmyard manure. The seeds are sown broadcast and are swept

lightly with a broom in one direction to cover them with some soil. The sowing should

immediately be followed by irrigation. Germination begins in four days after sowing. If

delayed, it should be stimulated by anotherwatering.

Manures and fertilizers: The FYM of 10-15tonnes /ha is applied during land

preparation. Isabgol does not require application of heavy doses of fertilizers. A

fertilizer dose consisting of 50kg N, 25kg P2O5 and 30kg K2O/ha gives maximum seed

yield. The full dose of P and K along with half of the N is given as a basal dose. The

second split of N is applied as a top dressing after one month of sowing.




Immediately after sowing, light irrigation is essential. First irrigation should be given with

light flow or shower of water otherwise, with fast current of water most of the seeds will

be swept to one side of the plot and the germination and distribution will not be uniform.

The seeds germinate in 6-7 days. If the germination is poor, second irrigation should be

given. Later on irrigations are given as and when required. Last irrigation should be given

at the time when maximum number of spikes shoots up (milk stage). The crop requires

totally 6-7 irrigations for its good productivity in medium sandy soils.

Interculture: Periodical weeding and hoeing is required. After 20-25 days of sowing,

first weeding is done and 2-3 weedings are required within 2 months of sowing.

Pests and diseases:

Pests: White grubs and termites damage the crop by cutting off the root which

can be controlled by broad casting phorate 10G @10kg/ha. Aphids also attack

the crop and can be controlled by spraying 0.2% Dimethoate.

Disease: Downy mildew is the major disease caused by Peronospora plantaginis. The

disease appears at the time of spike initiation. The first symptom is small patches on the

leaves, completely destroying it and thus affecting the yield. To control it, Bordeaux

mixture or Dithane M-45 or any copper fungicide at the rate of 2-2.5g/l can be sprayed.

Harvesting and processing: Blooming begins two months after sowing and the crop

become ready for harvest in February-March (110-130 days after sowing). When mature,

thecropturnyellowish andthespikesturnbrownish.Theseedsareshedwhenthespikes are

pressed even slightly. At the time of harvest, the atmosphere must be dry and there

should be no moisture on the plant, harvesting will lead to considerable seed shattering.

Hence, the crop should be harvested after 10 am only. After two days, they are threshed

with the help of tractor during early morning. Water is sprinkled over the heap for easy

thrashing and separation. The husk: seed ratio is 25:75 byweight.

Yield: The average yield is 800-1000 kg of seeds per hectare.


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