Physical Education Chapter 6 Notes - Class 12 - Test & Measurement in Sports

Unit 6 - Test & Measurement in Sports 

Based on Latest CBSE Syllabus

Physical Education Chapter 6 Notes - Class 12 - Test & Measurement in Sports

  • Fitness Test – SAI Khelo India Fitness Test in school: 
    • Age group 5-8 yrs/ class 1-3: BMI, Flamingo Balance Test, Plate Tapping Test 
    • Age group 9-18yrs/ class 4-12: BMI, 50mt Speed test, 600mt Run/Walk, Sit & Reach flexibility test, Strength Test (Abdominal Partial Curl Up, Push-Ups for boys, Modified Push-Ups for girls). 
  • Computing Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) 
  • Rikli & Jones - Senior Citizen Fitness Test 
        I. Chair Stand Test for lower body strength 
        II. Arm Curl Test for upper body strength
        III. Chair Sit & Reach Test for lower body flexibility        
        IV. Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility
        V. Eight Foot Up & Go Test for agility 
        VI. Six-Minute Walk Test for Aerobic Endurance 

Fitness Test – SAI Khelo India Fitness Test in school

SAI Khelo India Fitness Test is a fitness assessment program designed by the Sports Authority of India (SAI) and the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports for school students across India. It aims to encourage physical fitness among school children and identify talented athletes who can be trained further. 

The fitness test covers five parameters - anthropometry (body measurements), sprint testing, endurance testing, lower body strength testing, and upper body strength testing. Students are assessed based on their performance in these tests and given a fitness score. 

The test is conducted annually and students who score well can receive recognition and awards at various levels. The Khelo India Fitness Assessment App is used for conducting the test and generating reports.

Age group 5-8 yrs/ class 1-3

SAI Khelo India Fitness Test for age group 5-8 years or class 1-3 includes three components to assess the physical fitness of children.

BMI stands for Body Mass Index. It is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. The BMI calculation involves dividing an individual's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. 

BMI = weight (kg) / (height (m))^2

The result is used to determine if a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. In this fitness test, the BMI of children will be calculated to determine their body fat percentage.

bmi chart

Flamingo Balance Test 
The Flamingo Balance Test is a simple test of balance that measures a child's ability to stand on one leg for a period of time. This test helps to assess the child's motor coordination and body balance. The child is asked to stand on one leg with the other leg bent at the knee and raised off the ground. The time the child is able to maintain this position without losing balance is recorded.

The Flamingo Balance Test is particularly useful for children as it helps to identify any balance or coordination problems early on. Children who have poor balance and coordination may be at a higher risk of injury during sports and physical activities.

Plate Tapping Test
he Plate Tapping Test is a test of speed and coordination. In this test, the child is required to tap a plastic plate alternately with both hands as many times as possible in 30 seconds. The number of taps achieved in 30 seconds is recorded to determine the child's speed and coordination. This test assesses the child's fine motor skills, coordination, and reaction time. 

Age group 9-18yrs/ class 4-12:

The SAI Khelo India Fitness Test for children aged 9-18 years or in classes 4-12, consists of the following tests:

1. BMI (Body Mass Index): BMI is a simple and widely used method to assess if a person has a healthy body weight in proportion to their height. It is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. BMI is a good indicator of body fatness, which can be helpful in assessing health risks related to excess body weight.

2. 50-Meter Sprint Test: The 50-meter sprint test measures how quickly a student can run over a short distance. This test assesses the student's anaerobic power and speed.

3. 600-Meter Run/Walk Test: The 600-meter run/walk test measures cardiovascular endurance. Students are required to run/walk the distance as quickly as possible, and their time is recorded.

4. Sit and Reach Flexibility Test: The sit and reach test measures the flexibility of the student's lower back and hamstring muscles. The student sits on the floor with their legs straight, and then reaches forward as far as possible while keeping their legs straight.

5. Strength Test: The strength test measures the muscular strength of the student's abdominal and upper body muscles. 

The abdominal partial curl-up test measures the student's ability to perform a curl-up. The push-up test measures the upper body strength of boys, while modified push-ups are used for girls.

Abdominal Partial Curl Up: Abdominal partial curl-up is a test of abdominal muscle strength. The participant lies on their back with knees bent and feet on the floor. They cross their arms over their chest and curl up to touch their knees with their elbows. They repeat this movement as many times as possible within a specified time.

Push-Ups: Push-ups are a test of upper body strength. For boys, they perform push-ups with their toes and hands on the ground, and they lower their body to touch the ground and then push themselves back up. For girls, they perform modified push-ups with their knees on the ground instead of their toes.

Computing Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the minimum number of calories that a person requires to maintain their bodily functions such as breathing, circulation, and cell production while at rest. Computing BMR helps in determining the number of calories that a person should consume daily to maintain their weight, lose weight or gain weight.

There are various formulas to compute BMR, the most common way to compute Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is by using the Harris-Benedict equation, which takes into account age, weight, height, and sex to estimate the number of calories a person burns at rest. Here is the formula:

For men: BMR = 88.36 + (13.4 x weight in kg) + (4.8 x height in cm) - (5.7 x age in years)
For women: BMR = 447.6 + (9.2 x weight in kg) + (3.1 x height in cm) - (4.3 x age in years)

Another popular method is the Mifflin-St. Jeor equation which also includes an individual's activity level.

Once the BMR is computed, the daily calorie requirement can be determined based on the individual's physical activity level. 
If the person is sedentary, then the BMR is multiplied by 1.2. For moderate activity, the BMR is multiplied by 1.55, and for high activity, the BMR is multiplied by 1.9. 
The resulting number is the total number of calories that a person should consume daily to maintain their weight, lose weight or gain weight.

Rikli and Jones: Senior Citizen Fitness Test

This test is also known as Fullerton Functional Test.  Rikali and Jones developed this test in 2001. This is beneficial for senior citizens and helps in early identification of at-risk participants.

A. Chair Stand Test
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this test is to measure the strength of the lower body which is usually used for various tasks such as, climbing stairs, getting in and out of the chair, bathtub, car, etc.
  • Equipment Required: A chair and a stopwatch
  • Procedure: Keep the chair against the wall. The person sits in the middle of the chair. His arms should be crossed at wrists and held close to his chest. The legs should be shoulder-width apart. From this sitting position, the person should stand up completely and sit down completely. This is repeated for 30 seconds. Count the total no. of complete Chair stand.

B. Arm Curl Test
  • Purpose: The purpose of this test is to measure the upper body strength and endurance which is required to do activities involving lifting and carrying things.
  • Equipment Required: A 5-pound weight for women and 8-pound weight for men, chair without arms, and stopwatch.
  • Procedure: The aim of this test is to find the total no. arm curls that one can complete in 30 seconds. Arm curl is performed with the dominant arm side. The person sits on the chair and holds the weight in suitcase position (palms should be facing towards the body). The upper arm should not move but the lower arm should move freely. Curl the arm to complete range of motion. The action is repeated as many times as possible for 30 seconds.

C. Chair Sit-and-Reach Test
  • Purpose: To evaluate the lower back strength which is important for maintaining the right posture and various mobility tasks.
  • Equipment Required: A Chair with a straight back(44cm high), a Ruler
  • Procedure: The Participant sits on the edge of the chair. One foot should remain flat on the floor while the other extended forward with the knee in a straight position. Place one hand on the other with the tips of middle fingers at the same level. Instruct the participant to inhale and then as he exhales, reach forward towards toes by bending at the hip, keeping knees and back straight. Hold the position for 2 seconds. The distance between the fingertip and toes is measured. If the finger touches the toes then the score is zero. if do not touches the toes then the distance between them is a negative score. If they overlap, measure the distance (positive score).

D. Back Scratch Test
  • Purpose: To evaluate the upper body (shoulder) flexibility, which is important for performing various jobs such as combing hair, reaching for the seatbelt, etc.
  • Equipment Required: Ruler
  • Procedure: The Test is performed in standing positon. Keep your one hand behind head and lower it down gradually as far as possible. Your palm should touch your back. then carry your other arm behind your back with palm facing outward and fingers facing upward. Try to reach as far as possible in order to touch or overlap the other hand's  middle finger.  Measure the distance between the two middle fingers. If the finger tips touches then the score is zero. if finger tips do not touches then measure the distance between fingertips (negative score). If they overlap, measure the distance (positive score). Two trials is given.

E. Eight Foot Up and Go Test
  • Purpose: To Evaluate the speed, agility, and balance of a person while moving.
  • Equipment Required: A Chair with a straight back, a stopwatch, A stopwatch, cone, and measuring tape.
  • Procedure: Keep  the chair against the wall and keep cone marker 8 feet away infront of the chair. On the command of 'GO', stopwatch is started and the participant stands from the chair and walks (no running at all) as fast as possible towards the cone, turns around and return to the chair and sits down. Time is recorded as the participant sits down on the chair. Two trials are given.

F. Six-minute Walk Test
  • Purpose: To evaluate aerobic fitness which is an important component for walking, climbing stairs, etc.
  • Equipment Required: Stopwatch and measuring tape
  • Procedure: The Walking Distance is marked i.e. 45.72m or 50 yards in a rectangular area (20 * 5 yards) with cones placed at a regular intervals to indicate the distance covered. Participant has to walk as quickly as possible for 6 minutes. He may stop at any time he wants.

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