Class 12 Physical Education: Chapter 2 Notes - Sports and Nutrition | CBSE

Chapter- 2 Sports and Nutrition 

based strictly on the CBSE syllabus for 2020-21


Food & Nutrition has a very vital role in the growth and development of our body. They are helpful for maintaining our good health. Nutrition is required for everyone but it is indispensable for the individual who actively participates in games and sports. With the appropriate Nutrition, sportspersons can enhance their performance in their games. 


Balanced Diet & Nutrition: Macro & Micro Nutrients

A diet that consists of all essential food constituents, i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water in correct proportion is called a balanced diet.

The diet differs from person to person not everyone has required the same type of diet. It differs according to their requirement and their body type. 
  1. A balanced diet must contain all the essential constituent inadequate requirement.
  2. Cooking of food is necessary cal ITE sterilizers foodstuff.
  3. Food should be easily digestible.

Meaning of Nutrition

Nutrition is the process of being nourished.
Nutrition can be defined as the science of food and its relationship with health.

Macro and Micro Nutrients

  • Macro Nutrients

1. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy for our body.
There are two main types of carbohydrates that are a simple carbohydrate and complex carbohydrate
Glucose, fructose, sucrose, Galactose etc. are simple are called simple carbohydrates. They are sweet in taste and are called sugar. Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose are Complex carbohydrates. They are not sweet in taste.

2. Proteins: Proteins are very large molecules, so they cannot be directly absorbed into our blood. So Protein is turned into amino acids by our digestive system. There are 23 Amino Acids out of which 9 Amino Acids are required to be taken from our diet as they are not produced in our body. These Amino Acids are used by our body for making tissues, repairing the broken tissues, muscles, nails, hair, skin and tissues in the internal organ. 

The body requires 0.36grams of protein per pound of the ideal body weight.

3. Fats: Fats are necessary for many body functions. It keeps us warm and protects our internal organs. There are three different types of fats in our diet, that is, Saturated fats, Polyunsaturated fats and Mono-unsaturated fats. The intake of saturated fat increases our chances for heart diseases due to the increase in cholesterol level in our blood. Polysaturated fats and Monounsaturated fats help in lowering blood cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fat is slightly better than monounsaturated fats.

4. Water: Water helps in the transportation of Nutrition to the cells of the body. It is also imp. for the excretion of waste products in our body. It also regulates body temperature. It is vital for the various chemical reaction to take place in our body. 

  • Micro Nutrients

Minerals and vitamins are included in micronutrients.

1. Minerals: Mineral are essential for our body.a
 About 4% of our body weight is made up of minerals. Mineral are required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. 
Minerals can be classified into Macro i.e. major minerals and Micro i.e. trace minerals.

(A) Macro Minerals- (Required 0.1 grams each day)
  • Calcium - Required for growth and development of our bone and teeth. It helps in blood clotting. Its differences may cause Rickets. It is found in various products such as eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt, green leafy vegetables, orange juice and cereals.
  • Potassium - Helpful in keeping muscular system and nervous system fit and active all the time. It helps in maintaining the amount of water in blood and tissues. Its sources are - tomatoes, peanut, banana, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, beans etc.
  • Sodium - It helps in muscular activities and helps in transmission of nerve impulses. Its main sources are pickles, table salt, butter etc.
  • Magnesium - Repairs and maintains body cells. Found in - brown rice, beans, meet, whole grains etc.
  • Phosphorus - it helps in the formation of teeth and bones. It keeps nerve and muscles activities normal. Found in- fish, egg, cod liver, milk, unpolished rice etc.
(B) Micro Minerals - ( Required 0.01 gram per day).
  • Iodine- It is essential for proper thyroid function. Its deficiency causes goitre and sources are seafood and salt.
  • Iron- it is essential for production of haemoglobin. Its deficiency causes anaemia. Found in- liver, green leafy vegetables, meet, egg, dry fruits, spinach and banana.
  • Chromium - it stimulates insulin activity. Its deficiency causes diabetes. Found in- tomato, carrot, groundnut, soybean, Bajra, barley and  blackgram.
  • Cobalt - it helps iron in formation of haemoglobin. Found in green leafy vegetables, pulses and eggs.
  • Copper - it product us from anaemia and is found in green leafy vegetables, milk and meat.

2. Vitamins- vitamins are type of chemicalls which are required in a very small amount to keep our body healthy.

(a) Fat-Soluble Vitamins: these type of vitamins are soluble in fat. 
  • Vitamin A- it is helpful in the formation of bones and teeth. It also promotes normal vision. It also provides resistance to infections. Its deficiency may cause night blindness, xerophthalmia and keratomalacia. Its sources are - cod liver oil, milk, milk products, egg yolk, mango, papaya and yellow vegetables.
  • Vitamin D- it maintains the level of calcium and phosphorus also maintains the normal functioning of parathormone. Its deficiency main cause rickets, dental cavities, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, tetany. Sun rays, milk, fish liver oil and butter are some of the sources of turning.
  • Vitamin E- It is essential for blood coagulation, strengthens the cell membrane, keeps skin healthy, helps in curing cancer, normal functioning of reproductive organs. It also used to prevent heart attack and treat Alzheimer's disease. Its deficiency can cause degeneration of muscles, slow growth and paralysis. Its main sources are pulses, eggs, whole cereals and green leafy vegetable.
  • Vitamin K- its main function is to clot the blood. It also helps in the prevention of haemorrhage and excessive bleeding in wounds. Its deficiency may cause anaemia. Its main sources are potato, spinach, cabbage, wheat, egg, tomato, soybean, fish, cauliflower & meat.
(b) Water Soluble Vitamins: These are Soluble in water and contain nitrogen and even sulphur. 
These are Vitamin B and Vitamin C.

Vitamin B Complex 

(i) Vitamin B1 or Thiamin- maintains the health of liver, kidneys, stomach, brain, intestine etc. Its deficiency causes beriberi.
(ii) Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin: Helps in preserving & maintaining the characteristics of youth, tightness and smoothness of skin, essential to keep eyes, nose, mouth, lips, and tongue in a healthy state. Its deficiency cause stunted growth, unhealthy skin, inflammation in the eyes and also decreases the immunity power of white blood corpuscles. 
(iii) Vitamin B3 or Niacin- Helps in the growth of the body. deficiency causes grey hair.  
(iv) Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic - Maintains body weight. Deficiency Causes pellagra disease.  
(v) Vitamin B6 - Vital for the formation of haemoglobin. It also keeps skin healthy. 
(vi) Vitamin B12- Deficiency causes anaemia.  
(vii) Vitamin B7 - Its chemical name is biotin. Deficiency causes impaired growth, depression, muscle strain etc. 
(viii) Vitamin B9 or Folic Acid- Essential for reproduction, growth and development of the body. It is helpful in blood formation. Deficiency may cause loss of leucocytes.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): 

It helps in healing wounds. It increases metabolic rate & helpful in absorbing calcium. It is also a highly effective antioxidant. It is also essential for the formation, growth and repair of bones, connective tissue and skin. Found in Lemon, oranges, amla, ber, guava, pineapples, Tomato, green chillies and apples.


Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components of Diet

Nutritive Components of Diet

1. Proteins - Maximum protein is found in the tissues of our body and rest is found in bones, blood, secretion of endocrine gland, teeth and delicate tissues. Protein is important for cell growth and repair. it also plays important role in the mental development of a person. These are known as building blocks of life.

Sources of Protein
a) Animal Protein-  Protein which get from Animal Products like eggs, milk & its products, meat and fish are called animal proteins.
b) Vegetable Protein- Protein which get from Vegetables are Vegetable Protein. Eg.- Nuts, beans, pulses, food grains etc.

2. Carbohydrates: Explained above 

3. Fats: Explained above

Sources of Fats
a) Animal Sources- like ghee, cheese, fish oil, milk etc.
b) Vegetable sources- like sweet potato, whole corn, etc.

4. Vitamins: 
Types of Vitamins:
a) Fat-Soluble Vitamins: These vitamins are easily dissolved in fats.
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E

b) Water-soluble vitamins: soluble in water.

  • Vitamin B Complex
  • Vitamin C

 5. Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorous, Iodine, Iron, Sodium, Potassium, Sulphur.


Non-Nutritive Components of Diet

1. Fibre or Roughage: It has no nutritive value.  It is an undigested part of part and cannot be digested by the human intestinal tract. It satisfies the appetite and helps to correct disorders of the large intestine.
its sources are- Whole wheat, root, oats, fruits, vegetables etc.

2. Water: It is also an important component of our diet. even blood comprises 90 per cent of blood.

3. Colour Components: Natural pigments are found in vegetables & fruits. There are many colours derived such as red, yellow, orange etc.

4. Flavour Components: Flavours are derived from both nutritive and non-nutritive components of food.

5. Plant Components: There are some non-nutritive substances in the plant. these substances may have a beneficial or harmful effect on our body.


Eating For the Weight Control – A Healthy Weight, The Pitfalls of Dieting, Food Intolerance & Food Myths

Healthy Weight-  A healthy weight is considered to be one between 18.5 to 25 BMI. Above that, the person is considered overweight. A healthy weight helps an individual to lead a healthy and disease-free life.


Method to calculate BMI- 
BMI =   Weight in kg 
            𝄖𝄖𝄖𝄖𝄖𝄖𝄖𝄖
              Height in m²


 Category

 BMI

 Underweight

 < 18.5

 Normal Weight

 18.5 - 24.9

 Overweight

 25 - 29.9

 Obesity Class I

 30 - 34.9

 Obesity Class II

 35 - 39.9

 Obesity Class III

 > 40

 

The Pitfalls of Dieting

1. There is the restriction of some nutrition in dieting like carbs and fats which our body needs.
2. Intake Calorie is extremely reduced.
3. Skipping meals reduces the metabolism rate and slow metabolism rate helps to gain weight very easily. So, skipping meals is not helpful in weight loss.
4. Intake of more calories through Beverages. Coffee, soda, sugar drinks etc. contributes to weight gain.
5. Be aware of the calories you intake.
6. Avoid intake of labelled food with labels like sugar-free, fat-free. This food does not meet the nutritional requirement of our body.
7. Keep exercising to lose weight.

Food Intolerance

It is a term used for various physiological responses connected with a particular food.
Causes- Caused by part or complete absence of certain enzymes responsible for breaking down and absorption of that element.
Symptoms- Nausea, Stomach pain, vomiting, gas, heartburns, headaches etc.
Management- Avoid food with an adverse reaction in your diet.

Food Myths

These are some myths that have no scientific basis to prove to be true.
1. Fat-free products help you to lose weight.
2. Potatoes makes you fat.
3. Exercise makes you eat more.
4. Drinking while eating makes you fat.
5. Starve yourself if you want to lose weight.
6. Don't take milk after eating fish.
7. Eggs increases cholesterol level so avoid them.


Topics that are not in this year CBSE Syllabus have been removed.
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