Class 12 Physical Education: Chapter 4 Notes - Sports for Differently-Abled

Physical Education and Sports for CWSN (Children With Special Needs - Divyaang)

In today's modern world every differently-abled individual has the right to participate in events and programmes related to physical education and sports. Sports for the differently-abled are played by individuals with a disability. Sports provide many ample opportunities to the differently-abled people to lead a fruitful and energetic life.

Concept of Disability and Disorder

Generally disability and disorder, these two words are used interchangeably. However, it is not right. So, it is essential to understand the exact meaning of these two terms.

Disability

It is a reduction of fictional abilities.


Types of Disability, its Causes and Nature

1. Cognitive disability- it is a neurological disorder that creates entrance or obstruction for an individual to store, process all product information. It affects the ability to read, write, compute and speak.

Symptoms
(i) Memory Disorder
(ii) Hyperactivity - difficult to stay at one place.
(iii) Dyslexia - difficult in writing, reading etc.

2. Intellectual disability- It is characterized by significant limits in intellectual functioning like learning, reasoning, problem-solving, etc. & in adaptive behaviour, which covers a range of everyday practical & social skills. It begins before the age of Eighteen.

3. Physical Disability- It is a limitation on an individual's physical functioning, dexterity, mobility and stamina. physical disability may either be motor deficiency or sensory impairment. Motor Deficiency is related to spinal cord & brain damage and Sensory Impairment is related to an individual's visual or hearing impairments.

Causes of Disability


1. Genetic Causes: Disabilities are known to be inherited. Abnormalities in the genes and genetic inheritance can cause intellectual disability in children.

2. Mental Health Problems: Like depression, bipolar, disorder, etc. may lead to disability.

3. Accidents: Accident can also lead to disability.

4. Poverty: Poor person who is living and working in an unsafe environment with poor sanitation are the most vulnerable to the disability. Children who do not have access to safe drinking water and proper nutrition can fall prey to such diseases that lead them towards disability.

5. Infectious Diseases: If the immunity power of a child is low or he is not immunised well, he becomes vulnerable to the infectious disease.

6. Malnutrition: If a child does not get appropriate nutrition he may be physically weak and deficiency of any vitamins or minerals can cause malnutrition.

7. Disturbance in Endocrine Gland: Disturbance in endocrine gland main cause various physical and mental deficiency.

8. Poor Approach to Health Care: Many disabilities can be easily be prevented if there is proper access or approach to Health care facilities. When good health care facilities are not available during birth then a baby may be born with a disability such as cerebral palsy. Proper immunisation can help in preventing many disabilities.

9. Illnesses: Illness like heart attack, diabetes, cancer etc. cause a number of long-term disabilities.

10. Wars: In wars, many civilians and soldiers are killed or disabled. Incidents like bomb explosion can cause many disabilities to a person. The mental health of an individual is also badly affected by atomic, nuclear & bioweapons.

11. Medicines and Vaccines: The use of unclean syringes may cause serious disease like HIV/AIDS improperly stored or wrong vaccines may cause allergic reactions, poisoning and deafness to a child.

12. Lack of Education: Some diseases can easily be avoided by using the scientific method or by taking precautions.

13. Nuclear Accidents: Many persons have suffered after being exposed to radiation because of accidents in nuclear power plants in the USA and Ukraine in 1979 and 1986 respectively. It also happened in 1945- Japan.

14. Dangerous Working Environment

15. Toxic materials pesticides and Insecticides

Types of Disorder, its Causes and Nature

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a group or set of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. it is a medical cond. that affects how well can someone focus, sit still, and pay attention.

Symptoms or nature

-in Children
    1. Forget about daily activities.
    2. They usually talk excessively. 
    3. They become restless.
    4. They are easily distracted.
    5. They usually bounce when sitting.
    6. They can't play quietly.
    7. Have difficulties in organising routine activities.
    8. They usually daydream.
    9. They do not like to perform activities that require sitting still.
    10. Did not pay attention and make careless mistakes.

-in Adults
    1. May have a problem controlling anger.
    2. Get easily frustrated.
    3. Have low self-esteem.
    4. They may have anxiety attacks.
    5. They may be impulsive.
    6. Usually remain unorganised.
    7. Depression & Mood swings are common.
    8. Problem in concentrating.

Causes of ADHD
1. Genetic Factor
2. Low Birth Weight
3. Bad Diet
4. Brain Injuries
5. Trauma and Brain Diseases
6. Exposure to Toxic Substance
7. Lack of Discipline in the family

2. Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)

In this condition, brain have difficulty in receiving and responding to information that comes in through the senses. It may affect sense such as touch, sight, taste or movement. It may also affect multiple senses.

Causes
1. Genetic Cause
2. Low Birth Weight
3. Environmental Factor 
4. Physical Cause

3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

This disorder affects development. The term 'spectrum' refers to the range of symptoms and their severity. ASD is characterised by communication challenges, social interaction difficulties & a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviour. Children with ASD may behave differently or repeat some activities over and over again.

Causes
1. Genetic factors
2. Environmental factors
3. Brain development

4. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

It is a set of behaviour disorders called disruptive behaviour disorder because children who have these disorder always tend to disrupt those around them. It is also defined as a pattern of hostile, disobedient & defiant behaviour directed toward authority figures. 

Causes
1. Genetic factors or biological factors
2. Physical factors
3. Psychological factors
4. Social factors

5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

It occurs when an individual gets caught in a cycle of obsession and compulsions. OCD is a type of mental disorder that causes repeated unwanted thoughts in the mind.

Main Obsessions
(i)    A fear of getting dirty.
(ii)   A fear of making mistakes.
(iii)  A fear of being embarrassed.
(iv)  A fear of contamination by germs.
(v)   A fear of harm to yourself or loved ones.
(vi)  A forceful need to perform things perfectly.
(vii) having excessive doubt on any individual.

Main Compulsions
(i)    Hoarding.
(ii)   Constant praying.
(iii)  Repeating specific words.
(iv)  Checking things over and over again 
(v)    Bathing and washing hands many time 
(vi)   Persistently counting while doing usual tasks.
(vii)  Repeating things or always moving items to keep them in exact order.

Disability Etiquettes

• Always respect the dignity of a disabled person, individuality and desire for independence.

• Treat a person with a disability in the same manner and with the same respect and courtesy as with others.

• Speak directly to the person rather than through the friend, attendant or sign-language interpreter who may also be present.

• Never speak about the person as if they are invisible, can’t understand what is being said.

• Don’t put people with a disability on a pedestal or talk to them in demeaning terms.


Strategies to Make Physical Activities Accessible for Children with Special Need

The various strategies or ways by which physical activities can be made accessible for children with special needs are as follows

1. Inclusive Classrooms: It means the development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
2. Assistive Technology: It refers to creating devices, tools or equipment that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
3. Adaptive Physical Education: Depending on a student’s disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
4. Creating Specific Environment: Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children, so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
5. Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, a lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.
6. Focus on Creative Games Instead of competitive games and physical activities, the strategy is to develop creative games. This helps in team building and cooperation and prevents unnecessary competition and boosts the confidence of these children.
7. Accommodations and Modification Since the individual needs of the children with special needs are different. It is essential for the teachers to modify the teaching strategies in order to accommodate the children with disabilities. Therefore constant modification and accommodation are required.
8. Professional Courses Developing more professional courses and teacher certification programs for teaching physical education to children with special needs is essential to popularise the adaptive physical education programme.

Class 12 Physical Education: Chapter 4 Notes - Sports for Differently-Abled




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