Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 9 Notes - Psychology and Sports

Unit IX Psychology & Sports 

Notes of Chapter 9 - Psychology and sports of class 12 physical education based on the latest syllabus of CBSE. 

● Personality; its definition & types (Jung Classification & Big Five Theory) 
● Meaning, Concept & Types of Aggressions in Sports 
● Psychological Attributes in Sports – Self Esteem, Mental Imagery, Self Talk, Goal Setting  

Physical Education Class 12 Chapter 9 Notes - Psychology and Sports

1. Personality


Personality refers to the unique set of psychological traits, patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that distinguish one individual from another. It encompasses a range of characteristics such as temperament, values, attitudes, motives, self-concept, and social skills that influence how individuals interact with the world around them. Personality is shaped by both nature and nurture factors, including genetics, upbringing, environment, and experiences, and it tends to remain relatively stable over time. Personality is an important determinant of an individual's behaviour, and it plays a significant role in shaping relationships, career choices, and overall life outcomes.

It's types 

There are various types of personality theories and models. 

Jung Classification 
The Jungian Typology is a personality classification system developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. According to Jung, there are four fundamental psychological functions that are present in every individual: thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition.

Based on these four functions, Jung proposed two pairs of opposing attitudes:

● Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I): This dichotomy reflects the direction of an individual's energy flow. Extraverts direct their energy outward and are more focused on the external world, while introverts direct their energy inward and are more focused on their internal world.

● Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N): This dichotomy reflects an individual's preferred way of perceiving information. Sensors are more focused on concrete, tangible data that can be directly observed, while intuitives are more focused on abstract, theoretical concepts and ideas.

Combining these two pairs of attitudes and functions creates eight possible psychological types, which are commonly represented by a four-letter code (e.g. ESTJ, INFP, etc.).

Big Five Theory
The Big Five theory, also known as the Five Factor Model, is a widely accepted theory of personality that proposes that there are five core dimensions of personality. These dimensions include:

● Openness: Refers to an individual's willingness to experience new things, their level of creativity and imagination, and their appreciation for art and beauty.

● Conscientiousness: Refers to an individual's level of organization, self-discipline, and responsibility. Conscientious people tend to be reliable and hardworking.

● Extraversion: Refers to an individual's level of sociability, assertiveness, and need for stimulation. Extraverts tend to be outgoing and energetic.

● Agreeableness: Refers to an individual's level of compassion, cooperativeness, and concern for others. Agreeable people tend to be kind and empathetic.

● Neuroticism: Refers to an individual's level of emotional instability and tendency to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and anger.

These traits are believed to be relatively stable over time and have been found to be consistent across cultures. The Big Five theory has been widely used in psychology research and has practical applications in fields such as human resources and personality assessment.

It's important to note that there are many other types of personality theories and models and that none of these theories can fully capture the complexity of human personality.

2. Meaning, Concept & Types of Aggressions in Sports 

Meaning & Concept
Aggression in sports refers to behaviour that is intended to harm or injure others, both physically and emotionally. In other words, it is any act that is intended to cause harm to another person, either intentionally or unintentionally, during a sporting event.

The concept of aggression in sports is complex and involves various factors that contribute to it. These factors can include the athlete's personality traits, such as high levels of competitiveness and a desire to win at all costs, as well as situational factors, such as the intensity of the competition or the behaviour of the opposing team or fans.

Aggressive behaviour can take many forms in sports, ranging from verbal abuse and taunting to physical violence, such as hitting, pushing, or even intentional fouls. While some forms of aggression are considered acceptable in sports, such as physical contact during a game, other types of aggressive behaviour are not tolerated and can result in penalties, fines, or even criminal charges.

It is important to note that while aggression is often associated with sports, not all athletes are aggressive, and not all aggressive behaviour is harmful or negative. In fact, some level of aggression can be beneficial to an athlete's performance, as it can increase their drive and motivation to succeed. However, it is important for athletes to understand the difference between acceptable and unacceptable forms of aggression, and to always strive to exhibit good sportsmanship and respect for their opponents.

Types of Aggressions in Sports 
There are two types of aggression in sports: instrumental aggression and hostile aggression.

Instrumental aggression: This type of aggression is considered to be goal-oriented, strategic, and non-emotional. It is used to achieve a specific goal or outcome in the game, such as winning a ball, gaining a strategic advantage, or scoring a point. Instrumental aggression is not intended to harm or injure opponents.

Hostile aggression: Hostile aggression, on the other hand, is characterized by emotional arousal, anger, and the intention to harm or injure an opponent. This type of aggression is often impulsive and reactive, and it is not associated with achieving any specific goals or outcomes in the game. Hostile aggression can be detrimental to both the individual player and the team as a whole, as it can result in penalties, ejections, and other negative consequences.

3. Psychological Attributes in Sports

Psychological attributes refer to the individual's mental or emotional characteristics that influence their behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. These attributes play a crucial role in sports as they can have a significant impact on an athlete's performance, ability to handle pressure, and overall well-being.

Self Esteem
Self-esteem is the way you feel about yourself, your self-worth and your self-respect. In sports, it is important for athletes to have positive self-esteem as it helps in building confidence, motivation, and resilience. Athletes with low self-esteem may struggle with self-doubt, negative thoughts, and anxiety, which can affect their performance. Building self-esteem can be done through positive reinforcement, setting achievable goals, and focusing on personal growth.

Mental Imagery
Mental imagery, also known as visualization or mental rehearsal, is a technique used by athletes to imagine themselves performing successfully in their sport. It involves creating vivid and detailed mental images of yourself successfully completing skills, techniques, and scenarios. Mental imagery can help athletes improve their performance by increasing confidence, reducing anxiety, and improving focus and concentration.

Self Talk
Self-talk refers to the internal dialogue that an athlete has with themselves. It can be positive or negative and can affect an athlete's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Positive self-talk involves using encouraging and supportive language to boost confidence and motivation. Negative self-talk involves critical and self-deprecating language that can decrease self-esteem and increase anxiety. Athletes can improve their self-talk by learning to recognize and challenge negative thoughts and replacing them with positive and supportive ones.

Goal Setting
Goal setting is the process of setting specific, measurable, and achievable objectives for an athlete to work towards. It is an effective way to motivate athletes, monitor progress, and improve performance. Goals should be realistic and challenging, and athletes should have a plan in place to achieve them. The process of setting and achieving goals can help athletes build confidence, improve focus, and develop resilience.

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