Class 12 Physical Education: Chapter 5 Notes - Children and Sports

 Children and Sports

Based on Revised Syllabus of CBSE Physical Education 2020-21


Motor development & factors affecting it

Motor development means the development of a child’s bone, muscles and his/her ability to move around. Basically, It is the development person’s various motor skills from birth to death.

Motor Development is divided into two types:

  1. Gross Motor Development- development of large muscles of the child while sitting, walking, etc.
  2. Fine Motor Development- development of small muscles of the body, especially during small movement of fingers and hands.


Motor Development in children


Three stages:-

1. Early Childhood (3 to 6 years):

  • Preschool Stage
  • Motor development takes place very rapidly during this period.
  • The child learns fundamental movements such as running, jumping, sitting etc. and also develop the ability to combine these movements.
  • Children stride length increases and develop a more mature running pattern during this period.
  • The systematic training of children in various sports such as gymnastics and swimming can be started at this stage because of their movements such as rolling, hanging, pushing-pulling etc.

    2. Middle Childhood (7 to 10 years):

    • Children become active & agile during this period.
    • Children have the desire to engage in various physical activities and to compete with their own age groups.
    • Most of the children achieve a mature pattern of fundamental skills
    • Rules should be flexible with short instruction times and there should be minimum competitions during this period.

    3. Late Childhood (11 to 12 years):

      • Most children master the most complex motor skills
      • Ready to learn strategies & more complex play combinations.
      • Strength begins to differ but the difference is small, boys and girls can compete evenly.
      • Running and jumping movements develop at a faster rate as compared to middle childhood.
      • Should be encouraged for skill development with increasing stress on strategies and tactics.

      Factors Affecting Motor Development

      1. Biological Factors- The percentage of fast-twitch fibres and slow-twitch fibres depends on biological factors. Biological factors are related to genes.
      2. Environment Factors- research indicates that children who are told to explore their surroundings have a faster rate of motor development.
      3. Physical Activities- Regular physical activities enhances motor development.
      4. Nutrition- Sensory-motor development is dependent on nutritions. Nutritious food promotes good motor development.
      5. Sensory Impairments- such as visual impairments etc. can affect the motor development of the child.
      6. Opportunities- children get ample opportunities to do more to have motor development at a faster rate.
      7. Postural Deformities- any postural deformities hindrance the motor development of the child.
      8. Obesity-  Motor development takes place slowly in obese children.

      Exercise Guidelines for different stages of growth & Development

      1. Infant (1-2 years)

      • Gross motor activities should be promoted.
      • Infants should do exercise like moving arms, legs, and reaching various items.
      • They should be provided with toys that encourage them to move.
      • TV and other electronic media should be avoided.
      • Should be encouraged to walk.

      2. Early Childhood (3-7 years)

      • Exercise and activities which helps in developing competence in movement skills like jumping etc. should be encouraged. 
      • Emphasis should be laid on participation, not on competition.
      • Activities related to fine motor skills should be emphasised.
      • Physical Activities should be performed at least 60 minutes daily.
      • The recreative and enjoyable method should be used to encourage children to do physical activities.
      • Watching quality programmes on TV for 1-2 hours can be allowed.

      3. Later Childhood (8 to 12 years)

      • Children should indulge in activities like Running, catching, throwing, stunts, jumping, etc. This will help them to acquire body control, coordination and strength.
      • Stress should also be laid on Organised or team games to develop social consciousness among children.
      • Endurance activities should be avoided.
      • Children should be introduced to competitive sports and taught basic rules of competition.
      • Should be introduced with the concept of Sports training that builds endurance, agility, strength, balance, and coordination.


      4. Adolescence (13- 19 years)

      • Moderate to vigorous exercise is recommended for at least 60 minutes to several hours every day.
      • Muscle-strengthening exercise should be done at least three days a week.
      • Should also indulge in Bone Strengthening exercises.
      • Physical Activities exercises such as running, gymnastics, push-ups, jumping rope, tennis, swimming etc. and resistance exercises should be included.

      5. Adulthood (above 19 years)

      • An adult should always be active.
      • They should do waking, bike riding, dancing, and swimming with moderate intensity.
      • They should perform exercises that increase their bone and muscle strength.
      • They should do resistance exercises at least two days a week to tone their muscle and bone.
      • They should include running, weight training exercises & rope skipping for bone strengthening.


      Common Postural Deformities

      1. Spinal Curvature


      There are three types of Spinal Deformities:-

          (a) Kyphosis   (b) Lordosis   (c) Scoliosis

      (a) Kyphosis

      Kyphosis implies an increase of a backward curve or decrease of forward curve. Depression of the chest is common in kyphosis.

      (i) Causes: It is caused by malnutrition, illness, crowded areas, polluted air, insufficient exercise, carrying heavy loads on the shoulder, rickets, etc.

      (ii) Precautions: From the very beginning, teacher and parents should teach children the correct posture of sitting, standing, and walking. Proper Exercise helps to maintain the right posture.

      (b) Lordosis

      Lordosis is the inward curvature of the spine. It creates problem in standing and walking. It can be corrected in the initial stage.

      (i) Causes: Imbalance diet, improper development of muscles, obesity and any diseases affecting vertebrae and spinal muscles are the causes of lordosis.

      (ii) Precautions: 

      1. A balanced diet should be taken 
      2. Obesity should be kept away especially at an early age.
      3. The body should be straight while carrying weight.

      (c) Scoliosis

      Postural adjustment of the spine in a lateral direction is called scoliosis. A single curve to the left is called the C curve. It can also be found in an S shape.

      (i) Causes: Diseases in joints, under-develop legs, infantile paralysis, rickets, carrying a heavy load on one shoulder, wrong standing posture etc are its causes.

      (ii) Precautions:

      1. Take balanced diet
      2. Avoid sideways bending position
      3. Avoid carrying a heavyweight on one hand for too long.

      2. Knock Knee

      In Knock knees, both knees knock or touch each other while standing in a normal position.

      (i) Causes:  Lack of balanced diet especially – Vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus, rickets, obesity, chronic illness are some causes of Knock-knees.

      (ii) Precautions: 

      1. Take a balanced diet
      2. Babies should not be encouraged to walk at an early age.

      3. Bow Legs

      It is the opposite of the knock knees position. If there is a wide gap between knees while standing in a normal position it is bow legs or genu varum.

      (i) Causes: Lack of calcium and phosphorus is the main cause of bow legs. Long bones of the leg become soft and bent outwards. Also, the chances of bow legs increase when the child becomes overweight. The deficiency of vitamin D is also the cause.

      (ii) Precautions:

      1. Don’t let children be overweight.
      2. Take a balanced diet
      3. Don’t encourage babies to walk at an early age.

      4. Flatfoot

      Flatfoot is generally found in newborn babies but becomes a postural deformity if it still continues in later childhood. Children with flat foot feel pain when they run and have a problem while standing and walking. There should be a proper arch of the feet for healthy feet.


      (i) Causes: The main cause is weak muscles that cannot bear body weight. Also, rapid increase in body weight, improper shoes are some of their causes.

      (ii) Precautions: 

      1. The shoe should be of proper shape.
      2. Obesity should be avoided.
      3. Don’t walk barefoot.
      4. Don’t force babies to walk at an early age.
      5. High heeled shoes should be avoided.

      5. Round Shoulders

      The Shoulders become round and sometimes seems to be bent forward.

      (i) Causes:

      1. Heredity,
      2. Sitting standing, walking in the bent position, 
      3. Lack of proper exercise, 
      4. Wearing very tight clothes

      (ii) Precautions: 

      1. Avoid Tight-fitting clothes
      2. Don’t walk, sit, stand in the bent position
      3. Avoid tight-fitting clothes

      Corrective Measures for Postural Deformities

      For Kyphosis

      1. Lie on the back (supine position)- with knees up and feet flat on the ground. Hands should be on the side. Slowly move your arms sideways horizontally from sideways to head. Palms should face upward. Hold this position for some time and then return your arms back. Repeat the exercise at least 10 times.
      2. Lie down on the chest (prone position)- with hands on the hips. Raise your head and trunk several inches and hold the position. Repeat at least 10 times.
      3. Sit in normal position- with a stick held with hands in horizontal position overhead. Lower the stick and raise it behind head your head and shoulders.  Repeat 10- 12 times.
      4. Perform dhanurasana regularly.

      For Lordosis

      1. Lie down in a prone position with hands under the abdomen. Press your hands upon your abdomen and raise the lower back.
      2. Bend knees forward while allowing hips to bent backwards. The back should be straight and the knees should be in the same direction as the feet.
      3. Sit on the chair with feet wide apart. Bend and position your shoulders between knees. Then reach the floor under the back of the chair.
      4. Perform Halasan Regularly.

      For Scoliosis

      1. Lie down in a prone position 
      2. Stand erect with feet few inches apart.
      3. Stand erect with feet several inches apart.

      For Knock-knees  

      1. Horse Riding
      2. Keep Pillow between knees for some time.
      3. Use walking callipers
      4. Perform padmasana and gomukhasana.

      For Bow Legs

      1. Walk by bending the toes inward.
      2. Perform garudasana, ardha chakrasana and ardhmatseyendrasana.
      3. Walk on the inner edge of the feet.
      4. Stand erect with feet joined together.

      For Flatfoot

      1. Jumping Rope
      2. Jumping on toes.
      3. Stand up & down on heels.
      4. Walk on toes

      For Round Shoulders 

      1. Hold horizontal Bars
      2. Perform Chakrasana & dhanurasana.
      3. Keep tips of fingers on your shoulder and rotate your hand in the clockwise and anti-clockwise direction.


      Class 12 Physical Education: Chapter 5 Notes - Children and Sports








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