Physical Education Chapter 7 Notes - Class 12 - Test and Measurement in Sports

Chapter 7- Tests and Measurements


Computation of Fat percentage

○ Slaughter-Lohman Children skinfold formula:

A.  Triceps and calf skinfold (Males 6 to 17 years)

Body fat percentage = (0.735 × sum of skinfold) + 1.0

B. Triceps and calf skinfold (Females 6 to 17 years)

Body fat percentage = (0.610 × sum of skinfold) + 5.0

It is important to measure triceps and calf with skinfold calipers to use this formula.


Kraus-Weber Test: Measurement of Muscular Strength- Not in 2020-21 Syllabus

Muscular strength is the extent of force muscle or group of muscles can exert for a short duration in anaerobic Exercise.

Kraus-Weber Test is the measurement consist of six tests. These tests measure the minimum muscular strength of an individual. Each test is scored on a scale from 0-10.

The Six Tests of Kraus Weber Muscular Strength Test are given below:

  1. Test 1 tests the strength of the Abdominal and Poses muscles
  2. Test 2 tests the strength of Abdominal Muscles
  3. Test 3 tests the strength of Poses Muscles 
  4. Test 4 tests the Upper Body strength
  5. Test 5 tests the lower body strength
  6. Test 6 is a floor touch test and tests the back and hamstring muscles. 

Motor Fitness Test: AAHPER 

Motor fitness refers to the capability of an athlete to take part effectively in his/her sports.

AAHPER stands for American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. Now it is known as AAHPERD, the word Dance also added to it.

The final test manual was prepared in 1976 and the following tests were included:-

1. (a) Pull-ups (for boys): This test measures the total no. of pull-ups without taking a rest.
    (b) Flexed arm hang (for girls): The horizontal bar is set at the standing height of the student. With the help of two girls, the student is lifted until her chin reaches above the bar. She has to hold the bar in this position for maximum time. Time is noted in seconds.

2. Flexed-leg sit-ups: The student lies in a bent-knee position. Her elbows must touch while doing sit-ups. The total no. of repetition in one minute is noted.

3. Shuttle Run: Two parallel lines are marked at 30 feet distance on the ground. the two wooden blocks are placed behind one of the lines. The person starts the race behind the other line. As the race starts, the person picks the one block, comes back to starting line and places the block behind the line, and then similarly picks the second block and comes back to starting position.
 
4. Standing long jump: In his test, the individual stands behind the take-off line, swings the arms, and bends the knees to jump in the long jump pit. The distance is measured (in feet & inches) between the take-off line and the body part that touches the ground nearest to take off line. Three trails are given and the best jump is recorded.

5. 50-yard dash: The subject runs on the command of 'Are you Ready?' 'GO'. The Score is recorded in seconds to the nearest of 10th of a second.

6. 600- yard run-walk: The subject runs 600 yards at the signal of "Ready?" and "GO". The person also can walk during the course of running. Time is recorded in minutes and seconds.


General Motor Fitness: Barrow Three-Item General Motor Ability- Not in 2020-21 Syllabus

Motor fitness involves speed, agility, power, coordination, strength, and so on. 

Three tests are-
1. Standing Broad Jump ( for measuring leg Strength)
2. Zig-Zag run ( for measuring agility and speed)
3. Medicine Ball Put (for measuring arm and shoulder strength)

Measurement of Cardiovascular Fitness

Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to muscle tissues and the ability of muscles to use that oxygen to produce energy.

A. Harvard Step Test 
It is also known as Aerobic Fitness. developed by Brouha and others in 1943.

Equipment required: Bench or box of 20 inches high for men and 16 inches high for women, stopwatch, and cadence tape.
Procedure:
○ Step up and down at the rate of 30 step-per minute for 5 minutes.
○ Sit down immediately after completion of the test.
○ The total no. of heartbeat is counted between 1 - 1.5 minutes after completion of the test.
○ The heartbeats are counted for 30 second period. after the test. Again, the heartbeat is counted for 30 seconds.
○ For the third time, the heartbeat is counted after 3 minutes for 30 seconds.

Calculation of the Score
Fitness index score (long-term) = ( 100 × test duration in seconds) divided by (2× sum of heartbeat in recovery Period)

Advantages 
○ Less Equipemenst required.
○ Requires minimal cost
○ Simple to conduct.
Disadvantage
○ The test is the same for all individuals irrespective of their height and weight

B. Rockport One Mile Test
The subject of this test is to check the individual's VO2  Max i.e. Maximum Level of Oxygen. Suitable for sedentary individuals.

Equipment Req.- 400m track, stopwatch & weighing scale.
Procedure- 
○ Take the bodyweight of the individual.
○ The individual has to run 1 mile (1609 m). 
○ So, Record the time of one mile with a stopwatch.
○ Measure the heart rate just after finishing a 1-mile run/walk.

Calculation of VO2 Max-
132.853 - (0.0769 × Body Weight) - [0.3877 × Age + (6.135 × Gender) - 3.2649 × Time] - (0.1565 × Heart rate)

Advantages 
○ Minimum Equipment required
○ Simple to conduct
○ Can be conducted on many individuals at a time.
Disadvantages
○ Specific Facilities required.

Computation of Fitness Index

Fitness Index Score (Short-term) = (100 × test duration of the test) divided by (5.5 × pulse count between 1-1.5 minutes after exercise.

Fitness Index Score




Rikli and Jones: Senior Citizen Fitness Test

This test is also known as Fullerton Functional Test.  Rikali and Jones developed this test in 2001. This is beneficial for senior citizens and helps in early identification of at-risk participants.

A. Chair Stand Test
  • Purpose: The main purpose of this test is to measure the strength of the lower body which is usually used for various tasks such as, climbing stairs, getting in and out of the chair, bathtub, car, etc.
  • Equipment Required: A chair and a stopwatch
  • Procedure: Keep the chair against the wall. The person sits in the middle of the chair. His arms should be crossed at wrists and held close to his chest. The legs should be shoulder-width apart. From this sitting position, the person should stand up completely and sit down completely. This is repeated for 30 seconds. Count the total no. of complete Chair stand.

B. Arm Curl Test
  • Purpose: The purpose of this test is to measure the upper body strength and endurance which is required to do activities involving lifting and carrying things.
  • Equipment Required: A 5-pound weight for women and 8-pound weight for men, chair without arms, and stopwatch.
  • Procedure: The aim of this test is to find the total no. arm curls that one can complete in 30 seconds. Arm curl is performed with the dominant arm side. The person sits on the chair and holds the weight in suitcase position (palms should be facing towards the body). The upper arm should not move but the lower arm should move freely. Curl the arm to complete range of motion. The action is repeated as many times as possible for 30 seconds.

C. Chair Sit-and-Reach Test
  • Purpose: To evaluate the lower back strength which is important for maintaining the right posture and various mobility tasks.
  • Equipment Required: A Chair with a straight back(44cm high), a Ruler
  • Procedure: The Participant sits on the edge of the chair. One foot should remain flat on the floor while the other extended forward with the knee in a straight position. Place one hand on the other with the tips of middle fingers at the same level. Instruct the participant to inhale and then as he exhales, reach forward towards toes by bending at the hip, keeping knees and back straight. Hold the position for 2 seconds. The distance between the fingertip and toes is measured. If the finger touches the toes then the score is zero. if do not touches the toes then the distance between them is a negative score. If they overlap, measure the distance (positive score).

D. Back Scratch Test
  • Purpose: To evaluate the upper body (shoulder) flexibility, which is important for performing various jobs such as combing hair, reaching for the seatbelt, etc.
  • Equipment Required: Ruler
  • Procedure: The Test is performed in standing positon. Keep your one hand behind head and lower it down gradually as far as possible. Your palm should touch your back. then carry your other arm behind your back with palm facing outward and fingers facing upward. Try to reach as far as possible in order to touch or overlap the other hand's  middle finger.  Measure the distance between the two middle fingers. If the finger tips touches then the score is zero. if finger tips do not touches then measure the distance between fingertips (negative score). If they overlap, measure the distance (positive score). Two trials is given.

E. Eight Foot Up and Go Test
  • Purpose: To Evaluate the speed, agility, and balance of a person while moving.
  • Equipment Required: A Chair with a straight back, a stopwatch, A stopwatch, cone, and measuring tape.
  • Procedure: Keep  the chair against the wall and keep cone marker 8 feet away infront of the chair. On the command of 'GO', stopwatch is started and the participant stands from the chair and walks (no running at all) as fast as possible towards the cone, turns around and return to the chair and sits down. Time is recorded as the participant sits down on the chair. Two trials are given.

F. Six-minute Walk Test
  • Purpose: To evaluate aerobic fitness which is an important component for walking, climbing stairs, etc.
  • Equipment Required: Stopwatch and measuring tape.
  • Procedure: The Walking Distance is marked i.e. 45.72m or 50 yards in a rectangular area (20 * 5 yards) with cones placed at a regular intervals to indicate the distance covered. Participant has to walk as quickly as possible for 6 minutes. He may stop at any time he want.
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Note: These notes are for revision purposes and that why not all points are explained briefly. the point which is cleared is not briefed. 

The notes are very precise and are strictly based on the CBSE Syllabus to help you to revise all points in the least amount of time. While being precise these notes don't leave any important point.

So, these were the notes of chapter 8 of physical education class 12 strictly based on the latest CBSE syllabus.


*Click on the chapters name to see the notes

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